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Design akd tests of a six-stage axial-fiow compressor 

having a tip speed of 550 feet per second akd 

a flat operating characteristic 

at constant speed 



By 



John W. Maynard, Jr. 



IS' 
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■MVdiSP^.. 









■riA 



<tuy^^ 



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Thesis siibinltt^d to the Gra.i.uat.-' Faculty of the 
Virginia Polytechnic Institute 

in candidacy for the degree of 

MASTER OF SCIFJICE 

in 

Aeronaut.l cal Eneine^'i'i" net. 



o 
o 

S 
a. 
O 



(ACCESSi^CNUVBER) 



(PAGES) , 



6 (i<iASA CR OR TMX OR AD NUMBER) 



April 1958 



"9>V. 



(CODE) 



(CATEGORY) 



Ts&im mo 's^m gp a sk^swjs mial-fiov* ccmssssqr 
mvias A "m sjssd cf 550 Fisar mi issxxm md 

m cemspm ss^m) 

A «liC-sta@D a3£iai»rioir c<a9prf!ni9scr vith a ^:;X) feet p®r sockjocL tip ctsnod 
i^id a tl&t Gseratlng ohsurocterii^tic (ca^taat 0ta^3ation*preamre ratio at 
ccEistais^ speed orvusr the oipeiratiog rm&t d Hkie ca^jieQmcse) vm desigosd Mid 
tested. 'i%te &e&i£;n tlaeorsr arsd test results ttx>e praea^rbed in tiiis tfa0«is« 
Xt W3L8 aoAigrwd for & c<sm^mi3^ pc»Ksr iriput pcxr paus:)d <^ flow re^piMlews of 
warn flotf. ^i^ design 'spi^cific ved^ flotf v&a ^«1 pomnSfi ptsir aocood p@r 
s^iiore foot of frcntoX area leith «m otiooepteric OisolaBrgo «t on oviexuU 
fttagnS(tiaQ«^EHPtt»0ur« rutio of 5*£^ «u]£l «a ial^ isJ^Hip mdius zutio of 0«7. 
lb orSWK* to reoah <^.im ccMitios» tlNt l»lacie aettiiio ons^Les were reset 
Bi^ the B»f;hlJning notctlies at tla& root Qf* the first tlar©@ rotor bXadaa wsv^ 
f iHM* Sq an stt«is^p& to i&xi^<mm titm flat opa^tiso^ rnm^n of Um» caqpneMvaoTj^ 
th© M®ae aottins aaglcs a? -alae f ir»t two irfcaf^as wer© SjcmmtmtA md tbaem oit 
the l£«it two eta^ia wesre toawey&ea.. Also, the ©olltlitgr of tte first rotat- 



mSWM MD KS5^3 Cf A S»:-S!CAGS AXIAL-Pia? COMEKSSSCR 
mVIBS A TI? .SPS3D OP 550 PS32 R® SaCCfe iiHD 

Ans ommm spm) 

■fasr 

Tiaesis sulxalttcicl to fOie Omdu&tG F@iculty of the 
Vireiaia itoXyteclmic Institute 
33 c33slMu£iy for Uie degree Gi 

in 



AHfiO^SS): 



•^ 



''Strector of' Gteaduate StTA'iios 



fesad oi!' Departaeafc" 



Dean of iia^i^tneorinc 



Iilsi^cr iBrofe&aca' 



April 1958 



BlactetHsrSf VlrgiolA 



'^ 



■ - 2 - 

vim 

I, LKJT (F FKSJSSS AHB 2AM£S 3 

n. areHomcnoK 7 

in. SYMBOLS 12 

r/. msusB 1^ 

QoxusraX Vectaa: Dla®ptsa CoDslderatioen ih 

Vector Dissgreus Seleetloo 16 

HLade Beleotlon ............ 21 

{liaciuualcal Design ^ 

V. Sr^SRIMEaTAL TEST3 26 

Apparatus 26 

InstruagentatlcQ and ^at Procedure 27 

PresG&tatlon of Beoulta 32 

VI. DISCUS8I0H m RESDISS 56 

vn. cownaisicws m* 

vin. AciaiowiJEDaMiWK 1*5 

IX. BIBUOORAPBir , k6 

X. vrsA kj 

XI. iUTBBDICISS , hb 

Appendix A. Dex>ivatlon of on Sqv^tioQ for tbe 9a,te of 

Ctum&s of Work Input V71th a Changie in Axial Velocity * . . ^ 

Appendix B. Effect of Teating ^itb Fre<»-.12 ........ k9 



- 5 - 
I. IX'TT OF FISUHES AHD TASmS 

FlOlfi^ PAGE 

1. Gener&X Vector DisgrQa 53 

2. typical C<aastaiit Speed Ov&raiX Perfortiumce for Throe Types 

of A:iial-Pio» CoRrt^ssoro 5^ 

5. laical Syjaaetrical Vector Dlasram 55 

U. Deal^ Vector Dia^raa for First Sta^e of Six-Stags 

CaaiareEwsoa^ at Revaral Bsdii ....,.'.«... 56 

5. Six«Sta^ Cooapressor />J3a^!ib3y Ccnflsuration A ^ 

(a) Botor A0(»0Ribly . • 57 

(b) Statcor AsaoisbCLy 5& 

6. ItetJiil of BlaOe Mcwntins a»d Sotcbes la Slada 59 

Y. ijectlooal View of Corai;)3rcsoor 60 

8. Plan Vi«n? of the ConpreBOCS' Tost Stani 61 

9. InstruEoants 62 

W. Si:<»3tagge CocQQ^ireeoor Asse^l^' After Solidity Change^ 

Conflguratiai K 65 

(a) Botor Assesibly 6? 

(b) Stator AaosaibUjf , 6^ 

IX. Sta^s^tioa Px^ssure sad Iteaperature DlstzllRstlon Ag&lnet 

Badlus for Oesij^n Speed 65 

i2* Overall Perforraooce of a 31:c»3tat@Q A2ciaX»F3iX3v Coeipressor 

CoBfisupation A in ^Ur . . 66 

(a) Vlariatlon of Stagnatloiv-Preasiire H&tlo (Butaerioal 

Avtsrogc) With Peretsnt of Besiga Mass Flow *...,. 66 



«. u • 

IS* (CoDtinusd) 

(b) Variation of Tesajjeratare EfTicicncy ^BiSBerical 

Av«r&gge) With Ferctmt of Desl^ Mase FXov 67 

(a) ^^RBrlatloQ of Tip Statlc-Preasure fllsa Mith Blsde 

Sw 66, 69 

13. Overall PerfOCTBonce of a Slx-Staee Axlal-Flcv CoG^preosor 

CkaofiguratloGt B is Air 70 

(a) Variation of St@s!:m1^an«Pres8ure Batlo (Raanrii^Cl 

Avera^} Uith Feromit ol' Desiga Hbm flotf 70 

(to) Variation of ^ta[^g»arature Sfficicacy (SaaBrical 

Averages) With Peroeat of Desiaei Mus FXotr ..... 71 

(c) Variatioo of Tip 3tatic«Presaur« fliee With SOLade acmr 

at lOO-Paroent OeaigQ Speed 72 

3jlt.. Overall Perfonoaacc of a Si£<-Sta^ A:£ial»Flov Cae^pxvasoar 

Configuraticin C in fdx ,.^ 73 

(a) Variation of Sta^oatiOQ^'iPressiire liatio (Bmnrieal 

Avera^) l^ith Percent of Oeali3?i Masa Flow 73 

(to) Vai'lation of Tewijerature Efficleiicy (Rueaezleal 

A-/«sra@j) With Percent of Deslaa libsa Flov 7*^ 

(c) Variation of Tip Static-Pressure Rise With Blade Botf 

at 2C0*Pere&at Dcsigsi llm* Hov 7!? 

1% Overall Perf«sraaanc« of a Six-Stage Axial«Flov CooiarGaaor i 

Conf igtBiatioa C ia FreoR<»lS * 76 

(a) Variation of StajpatiOQ-Frescsum Batio (Sumerical 

Avarage) Uith Percent of Deaiepa Eteae Tlov 7^ 



^ 



- 5 - 

15. (Continued) 

(b) Variation of Tejsperature Sfflcleney (Hanoearlcal 

Averags) With Percent. of Design Jfaee Flbw ..... TF 

(c) Varlatlaa ocf Tip Statlc-Pre«»3ur@ Elo© With made 

ftov 78* 79 

16. Orerall PerfOKiaeaee of a Six-Ststgjs Axial-Flow Ccss^xressior 

CoRfiguratlaa D la Air 80 

(a) VajrtatiOB c£ Stasnatioo-Presoure Batio (Buaerlc&l 

Average) ^iith Percent of Design ftess Flsw ..... 80 

(b) 7arlatloe of Teciperature iSfficienc^ (Humerical 

Averege) With Percent of Eteeisn Mass Plow 6J. 

(c) Variatloai of Sip Statie-Prosaure Riae With BlEuto 

Bov ftt 100-?ereent Defilga Sp«ed ^ 

17. Ovi»rall Perfonaanoe at a Six-Stage Axiel-Flcv Canis>refi&cr 

Caafiguration la Frean-12 ©3 

(a) Vtsrlotloo of Sta^joatloa-Presaione Satlo (HuGmrieol 

Avena^) vfitii Percent of Dtsslap Muis Flo«r ..... 85 

(b) Varisttloa oT ISaa^jerature ISffldency (jRutnerical 

Avera^) With ftercsnt of Dssign Mass Flov ..... Bk 

(c) Vlarlatldn of Tip Static-Pressiir© Rise >llth Blacte 

!loir at 100-Fercent Dealgo Speed . 65 

IB. Overall Perreanaance of a Glx-St«i£se i\xial-Plotr CaG5?rc«sor 

COnTlrjuratloa S In Air 06 

{a) Verlatlm of Sta^aatloafi-Fresstare Mtio (Shxaerical 

Avera^) With Fere^at of Dasl^pa ^fass Flair ..... 86 



m S " 

18, (Coatiaued) 

(b) Varlatltaa of Ttarques El'fieiojsqr i?itJi Percsnt of 

Ikifilm *«s ^TLow 87 

(c) Vai'latlani of Tip Static-Pressure Biso With Blede 

Bow at 100-Percent Design Speed 8& 

19. O^KsraXl Perfor-Jisuace of a Six-Stoge /^^d-al-Flow Coaspreesor 

CottflsPii'atiQa E in ^^oii-i£ , 89 

(&) Vai'ltitioia of Stasaaticej-IreBoure Batio (H»»rlcal 

Average) With Percent of Desiign J-lass Flosf S9 

(b) YarlatlOR of fba^perature EiiUei^acy (Saaerical 

Average} With Percent of Design Mas* Flew 90 

(c) VaTiatlcaa of Tip Stattc-PresBixre Rise With Htoie 

Rotf at ICO-Percaat Design ilpeed 91 

I. Design Visdxiea for Test CcKapressor 19 

IX, Blade Desl{<pimtiaEi0 23 

zn. Sunxaary of Configurations 'llested 33 

JV, aaaaory of T^ot Dotft , 55 



' «" 7 *• ■ 

For the ctefilsjQ &t c^^jereoolo aircjeai^t and ©cstoe^in-wtos plaa farras, 
tiie «8igia6 vith tbe @SEili«t6t frcccrbaX area is d(s&i^:i&a* Xa tlici p^f t^ 
cKXEPSpns&fore used in ttirlao^t emgines vare oexfterifus&I tj^ canpraoacre* 
@jyDce the lar^'St cos^artoxTt of a tur1iK>Jet «iiiglB6 (u&lrtg a onxWlfUfpl 
emsfmmsp) ia th» coHptHsacr twrnasbly^ then to Oeore&ae the frontal earaa 
Otf a turbojet fflagitae oal^r i;h@ caBinretBacH^ IVoataX area oeed be rodiK^ed* 
Because of thftlr OBoallser' croes {H»eti(» mid oGtp^iUUiy <x? big^ m&»9 fIi3W6« 
a»laI<-fXo«r caneraaflaps tiacve been dewsXqpsd foa? turbojet ®ngiiie use* At 
tte |!8t!i£i»533t t jattj, melM^2xM coBH^reeeors oasi bo (lefiisrsed for a samUer 
^isseter thm tte cQEObuetiosi cliaslier ilii3£» Oeli-veriiig tlte required zoase 
n^. la ceiBweacimm to c<s3e^;rifU6tt3^ ei»ps«f^osr@« SisOsaonjciv caamemtom 
tsmx ^em-mr a greater tieic^ flou par sfiare f cKit ol' ftootaX asroa at a 
»li^ly greater' «f^ici8«cy, in the ca?cifir of 7-perc©trS; (ref. 1). Tbet 
&mSi^ of aa axi&KXov cotpwMKr JUi alai>Uf:Le& gince tlie canp^ttasor 
ow be studiAd «ta^ t^ staa^ or iovtati^tdd as a oa^liBte usit* Itaat 
of t!)a vorlc bains cooOuctod at -tibte pxnasent tiias is on mdsX-'tijav coBsree&cars* 

!£^ dttjKLga tip &s&exl of on oxial-fiow coesureasor ie m&uaUy eelected 
a© hi^ tta poaaible within tl» liantatioa is&smd. by the teig riae Ifech 
miisfeif iral^tive to tha rotor bladea. *99ti« hi^ tjj^ i^^ood is &mix«& 
»4ffl«« tbe joNwMRfflfe rii© pe>r stage lQtom»aeeit Qa^>c«»jatially vith the tip 
wgrnA for tbe wvm blades aM iim »mm Sleu ^saeXas* ito a rvauXt oS 
eomsidaarebie reoearch aaa f^ewslcjpMofe wftPcrt,- tbe tip flspe«$ and prescure 
l^io of aiitamft ia&«>ti3rbii3e t^rp® ccopreasgrs ban^ been groatljr imai^aaad 



^ 



• 8 - 

Icfg %tg sgpeed ccaspreacors l^-ve soraei ^tdvatxto^^ sttch as stnzctur&I 

cleoisa, airf odLl eeliscfcioa, aaS lower relative air velocitlee, if the 
papensure ratio 3?er sisa@i» can be aKuLntaitnecl 6t a xac)cLer@t«ly M^ level* 
n^ Icmcr tip i^ieed a£^l£?i Ims aigegllcatioGS to i»di^trial»t;j^ cascp:>e0scr0 
isuod to thi$ rear sta^ee of aircraft ^et'-^a^^^xi^ ooqpreGeora. ^Hhe rear 
stagE^ of an aircfraft ^ot^^-eosiae caaj;ro0sar qpcEste at iow corrected 
(t««3apearst»s«) tH^ epeeclB. ^ iUx^ttrate tMs corasicysr & two spool 
conee*eB6or^ (each ^ool Ja^de£ie«3«ntly driven on & coxoofn a;Kls)|, ot a 
fli{]^ j^h nu^yer of 2*^ in tha etratoes^sKre* Mmsm tiiat tise fin>t 
filpool baa aa owrtOX sta^Eidi&laa-freomire ratio oaC S*0 oM tlte taa^entiaX 
tip epeed in tlie secosid ^pool io 1,000 feet per eecoM. For tl^se 
oQisditiaDS the eeccsad «^?ool trfJLl hsve a oasErected ti^p ©peed of 675 fi&s^ 
per seccffiid. Xa os'der to operate e» ooepraiifior &% laa tip epeoda, hi^b@r 
ttmijas angle's are required to feeop the vKxrk'ixs^iA hl^ enough to oJjtain 
the desired «tagB«tiC8a«»prefiG\H« ratio at a reaeoaaablo c^eratiiig effi* 
ciiancy. Egpilae-ts^ tilAiSee Betoduce these desired hij^ tunaing angles 
aod a reaaonable &to@Qatim<i^p(rea6ta!« ratio at ^sfcsd- €£)@Tati»g ®£'ficiencie&* 

Two paroeaetere used ia tlie dewiga of cc£pEi3&0C3s.-" l4Ad^ arc2 tbts 
staegBatiOB prowiure riaws ooefficieat f' ""^ " ' ] aiid the static 

preeswe rise ooeffici«tat / 4^,- ) , » has Tieen found froo 



dHlsa (r^. ^) ttot t^ «tatic'>par*es6ure rise coefflcicsife i« 
0i@aificGu3t loadingMlixdt icff«aeter for ocaptressor bljaaee* 9» ectttrins 
relfifeiw ia^oct preesta?© is laainly a fuactlm oif ti» rotatiooal spe^d 
aiad tltft axial inaloclty* Sfae design aad pcarf oftaaace of a lov i^peed 



• 9 - 

mpuiJMa-t^ype rotor vrmi and tclthouti ft «4i«6cr rosr ije» 9roaesl«d la 

iiitQtftesranaoeM 2 sod. 3* 3^ tMs 4eeig& & mry ^^^ stat^iotlon pKWHf»»« 
3?iee coefficient ws ©Jfefealxed vltb. reosKKMible t>ea©er!£fe«r© tEWlciemclee 
fMQd '^Iw mlti@j3 of liliB 6fisi4i&-3^<%seu3re rlse coefficimxt mxe vXiiOM 

tiJ© 8t»tlc-^'ti!SS'ur© rise io the rotior ime appro«ciJaately isero. OSdo loft; 
a l«r^ etatiojwesmjm ri«»e for the irtator ead resulted in a iJig^ veloc- 
itjr l«»v$ng the ata.tor« Sierefiomy t^iis rotor <iiesisa ia« not sult«j>l« 
foap fflulti8ta.3ii3g, l3@amffls csf this larse V£3boclty inoreao®. 

JSk is poaeible to iDor<@e^£i® or Oficrease the etrterlng relative lesiact 
pre«»isre of tbe rotor ic^ mim s«ido mnes (sxrerotatiqiMil TjOjaaea} if th& 
rototionsO. qpoed m& tim work <3one Ijy the r<y&ai- ic teM constant. For a 
matiBtage cccpxsseor laftiore aadal flcuf is ctesircd at ell ra&U for all 
fltasas, guide vfwm Qs?e of no parfcicttlar advajatoe®. The pcwesA tafm&. 
in oirraEsaft miial*»flm cocpreasor ^teeigQ is to ir.creaae tbec enterin® 
rolfitiiie iaspoeit ph^bb^js^ to Mi^jar "walmee t^ tlesigniiacj f cas* «iq?eraaoic 
(relative) inlet vialociti«^. "Tim bX^ relative velocities ar© attalwd 
W raising both the eaial -welxjcity and the rotatiosial ^peed. The ob^ec- 
felw of tase jareaent vork mis to obtain inf ossiatioa cm cosBtolning losr 
nitoitioiftl ^intem mad aodteretely M^ ©atial velocities. Ifa doing so, 
the relatlip? Itech mi!fi)er esfeerlr^ the rotor vill lae in the hij^ subsooic 
T&xi^} this will irocluce relative lajpact proos«reo which em hi^jh enou^ 
to permit etagoaticei 3?re«Mwre rt^ioe la tii© car^tef of 1*2 per st«ee vith 
Bssaastrioal victor aiegreaae foaf all ©ta^ew i^sit have to increase in assl&l 
wlocltiea acrosd «$&ch ste^. ta^ type cjf rotca: is ©idtahle for 
esilti&t&glQg. 



- ID - 



If tliG ccffliprafteair ie to "be driven l^ a ce^^tatazxt s^peed eXectric 
laotor it vooM be <aesiraMje to bav© a wide cpaoutliig jMige of mase 
f Ijobt fttSftW occwrtng «t a eaastaat etagiaa^icsi^preoirare riatio ana at a 
ooastaot opeed. lb tlie case of an alrca^aft ccffi©r^59Sor this conditicsi 
iKJwM also l)e OesiJSsJjls. Foer illiMrtaratlcaa^, coaaaidear a two spool omf 
EQpessoar. If ttoc fijaatt 8|?ooX ^las dfiS-ii^jed fcr tiae coaadltiaKi tbat tbisre 
be a coswfemit fttai^QMsioB-^jo^asewre ratio cyror ti» C(paratias SMctQe of sisfis 
Sim at confftast i9B«itt4 tijoa the vector iSiarjcwB far tfee eeccffid spool 
iRSUild be less critical* 

A 0lsc-6t»@e eac«vi««<r wshb dsftl©:i©a fear the follcwlagi (1) i^j»* 
rasferioal -velocity vector Oiaspani (to be eKplainecl in tlaei deaign ©ectioai)! 
(2) cooatant axial irelocity osf 650 feet per mcaad et all etsfsesi (5) a 
3SK) f^^ per aeooc^ tip ep&edj (if) 6tag»£tticm»|re6SiQra r»tlo of 1.217 T^eac 
9ta@o» 5.25 cweraOl; (5) iaLst laib»tip radius mtlo of 0*7i (6) epeclfic 
vett^ flov of 21.3 pounds per secorsd par i^guBrs foot of frcaifcal «a?«aj 
ttHdl (t) a fa»fc operatis:^ dbaractesrietic (cc«ifft6nt stagpatim-paNWaare 
ratio at coaastant ffpeed over tbe qpeawKting rang© ctf tbe Gmsm&sac)* 
^Stm cameemac wu> 'cmilt and to$tod «is Oeacribod in thia thssle. !£hia 
OeGl^ bad a possible tam&^Mfyo applicaticm to a bouo^iMcy-laQ^er auctioa 
cootsn;^ fOK a larj^ olotted throat traoaoraic wSM tumRSilf but would 
be eqj.]ally a pp lioa b le to otber iturtiallatiom vSmee a Icnr tipn^ded 
ocatfemttm Sm ad:«aata@eoa6« FOx> ttte bouaS&ry>»l£i(^?&r smutim coBtix>l« 
tbe ocxpraeiaor ins to be driven by a cai3«ta»t*»i^^a6d eldctrle siotor^ 
i^mm£(xe^, a flat atiemtiJQg clbaraetoriatic ma re^JdU:<ed» 3h tli9 



-^ 



- 11 - 



«aq^ct£jiticm of acbie'vlas & tieA oserating cbareMsteritstlc the Gcstgve&aae 
i«us designed for coeoataKtt pomcar ix^put per pouM of floir* 

Jkny B»2lti8ta@e ccESpre&sca* that I0 deelgiiisti for air, and bae 8yEi>> 
e»tric&l vector diagrasis at all tsta&m, cmx be rnm in other asdluai 
vitliout eeriouft nlsswtch (tbat i&, the desl^ vector SSmsimm not being 
obtained at all radii asd all staged). Sinco F^an>*lS bae a bl^bav 
denfiity ttaen air, it will produce a bibber vei^xb f lou' at a givuD Angle 
of attack without ijocreaeins stall* To illustrate tMe condition, the 
cozpreasor va9 tested in Ixsth air and FreoEQolS* 

To t^ teowl&d^e of tt^ author thia is tl^e first eaqpreasor 
designed for tfae foreacdag caaiitl<M36. She deslga, testing, and analysis 
of results was cocsducted at the Cascade Aerodymraics Libasratory of tiae 
Um^^y AaroDautical Xc^bcaratory* 

Tbe 6&Bim timoxry c£ thle caa!^c&UB<xc will be tulssa tq^ in Seotloc XV* 



- 12 - 

XXX. mmm 

C%Q omSo^se essjpres^^ed as isolattO. airfoil lift ooeff icleat, 

per^g^Klicialar to raaaa velocity 

^BS «^valj@Kt ti^ 9pe«idj ft/sec 

la naiw ^ .i i r fislS i. 
■» ■■• Ill f jj^^ 

ti ' ssMlNBr <^ cie^r«ie» oC IVeedcia 

P total sa?©s®^»e, 23>/a4 ft 

9 otiitttic XNE^^fi^ETe, 333/3^ £t 

BX, B2« . • • ro^or X« zxitcar S# «%c» 

r ' iMiua, ffe 

&X# @S, . . . 0ts.tor X, etftl^ar S, etc* 

7ot»tioa speedj, ft/am 

V VBiociljy OS" aeOiifla, ft/ma 

Q mg^ hti^mmi miHimrim ^Xcnr airoctloa and blade 

fl|^ aae^ between ©ntao'lne f iw dirocticm aad blade chard f osr 

asrtJUauQ cooaitiaas froBi liov-e^peed cmscode dttt&» deg 
Q^ aagXe be!«»oen sntfiriiae Hov Oireotioc md bXMe chord 

xe^sudred. to nstob mrevlous stacks, dog 
tim angle ]9»si«ur«a f!ren aactol d&r@ctioaii, oeg 



- 13 - 

7 r«*io of ii®ecinc teats 

^ po2;/t«:£>ic eflicieiicy 



^ «f flclency IpQsed on torqiu©, i^ « 



7 - l.C 



's»aiBure4 



te*J ^ - 1.0 



i)|i ttCficiesscj baaed cm tcaqp«Kirttl#U!E«^ 'Jqi = 

• ' flow tumtog ftngl©, aeg 

|> density^ alti-^/cu ft 

ff solidity, cboBKl/speclng ratio 

« aHiSokir velocity, radiasjs/eec 

2 leaving: rtjtoa? 

5 Jyeavlns etator 

^ 3«ivte£ rfeatoar no. 6 

B relative to rater 

t %^ 

• taoarati&l 

19» om of conaas to tJje s»b«cri$ts deaotee tte eeeoM 0«jb®cri|>fc 
rcf<8?8 to thffi syii^bal Imt not tie first »wto8cr4pt« 



^ 



-w-^ 



CempaX Wetor Siagretm Ccmeiai»ra.tion0 
2& aerOer to tmOorataiad tlb@ vectoar Oiafpraos preflcaxte^ for the Smalm 
a£ thlB ccia£nt»sfior^ a brief Oascrivtlan of & t^sfpdcal vector diagraa 
(alK»m in Fig. X) is @lv&n« For the s^aetaX oae® a tlm vWx prerotaticm 
l»£ IWKRi m&vmd» SSto esotearlog flow veJUscity la V^^ with a prwratatiaQ 
of 0]^ diegr««8* ^Clxis floKT v<3locity^-Vx» ^^^^^ ^ lavo^^m dcnm into its 
m&sJL $md ts2ig!«ntiaX cas^gcaaeggte^ Vz^i e»d V^ -j^ r^peoti-vely. Stib* 
tractins tbe rotatlcaitstl -velocity^ 13, Sram ttna i^teriag taagpEStlal 
it^tocity, Vij^i, (sasa aading -veotorialty to tliia ttie ctsclal velocity, Vg j^, 
]*9milt6 Sn th» ttiUsrlRts wlocit^r rtletivo to ttxo vol^jrj, Vx^d, at » 
Oireeticia otf ^j^^ tjegcees, Hbw aovune tfee flow is tiimed % aagreos 
t^ tSie rotor* The flov velocity loatvlng tlie rotor laas & BBgnitu!^ of 
%,B ** **" aftgl© of 02^ Oesreea in rotor coordlttates, ^Jher© 
^,R * ^1,R ~ %• ^''lifi flow veloQity, ^^s* '^^^ ^ tedlaBin dowa iKbo its 
mtSMX md tffiB@»itial coBVMMMmts, V^ 2 ^^^ ^9 2 Jfi^ respectively* Ho 
convert tbls Ixftoli: to tb© atatiooary coordinflrfae e^te% the rotatloned 
velocity U i» «Med to the l^aviog tangpsotial v&lodty ia rcjtor cooiv 
dinatoe, V©^a^^, eiM tM» resulfc is adfieft v8ctoa?ltilly to the asdUsa. 
"Wlocity Ijehiad tl» rotor V^ 2* ^** rewultant flosr velocity, Vg, denat« 
the flow leaving ta» renter ia statlomry coaardinsstQ© is & Slrection of 
% Glegre«». XT it is Bemmed. aov that thft tlm ie turned dg de^EWW 
l>y the statoar, thszt the flew velocity lessflas tiK otatdr i« V^ IB « 
diroctiou of (S3 de^raoa^ vhere Pj • % « «c« ^>€aia thl» flow velocity 



- 15- 

V3 caa b« la^cSum dcjnm Isifco its axial and t«ia^£itial eosg^omnte, Vj^^^ 
qM Vg 3, respectively. A coi^Hwsit® diagram, ;^dch is aoat cocraonly 
used, is shovn in Fi£pr« 1* 

For the deeigti of tlK2 cosBpressor in this thesis, tba velocity 
diagraffls were selected to produce a flat c:5>e«utin6 chsaucteriBtic 
(eoaaatant stetgnatioa preewaore ratio over tl» ogperating range of SKuse 
flKM) at constant rotational speed or, aare apecificiilly, to tow a 
ccfflstesnt power input per pound odE* flosr at a c<xistaj3t rotaticsaol inde- 
pen&easib of the axial velocity. The f oHoMlng egpation exprcsaeo the 
rate of change of the waorfe input par imit laass. iflow vith respect to a 
cbsi:^ in the axial v@:i£>city and i@ derived in ^ES^ndix At 



dV„ AV(g 



The foUowiag aaaiasBrticffia were raadci: in tte Ssrivatianj 

1. Eatfflping and leavias axial velocities are equas-l. 

2. StTQaalines reas.in at the sacss radii* 

5. Leaving flow direction relative to the rottsr rejssaiaffl conBtaat 
ChS the entering direction p^ '"S'Ties. 

Ccsiventional axtal-flow caapress<H*s tetve a rotational speed (U) two 
or three tioes &q great as the change in tanoentiol velocity across the 
rotor (IS^q) otti tence their oo«a«ta«fc speed qperatins line has a hi^ 
negative slope &» shown in Figure 2. The iu^pule© ccBappessoar of 



^ 



-16- 

references 2 ana 5 hA& a rcffc&tdonal speed Isag than the chaise in tha 
tsuagentlea velocity &t sam of Mb& Tslafie-aettlag tsnslefi tested aM thus 
had a pc«iti,v«s elogpina qperatiJig line a» ohown in Figure 2« For a 
positive slqs>ing operating line tlae ataonatioa presaivre riee \ifill increase 
witJi iiicreaaine veS^^ i'low over tJie oiseratiog r^nge of tbe caBjpr«MKar. 
Fcr a flat operatiiig cts*r&eteriatic, of «ero c3.ox3e lij:ifi, tiie dismsfi In 
ttoit^eatial -v^slocity Kuot egaaJ. tlie jrotatioaaX ypeou.. (See Fie. 2). 

M^actKHT Dla^p-aa Selection 
Since a flat osperts,tiag daaraeteristic wu« Oesirod for this caBapresBcsr, 
it vm netcBsmxy to laate tlis ctmnm ixx tangential velocity across the 
rotor egtial to 1^ rotatiotnal at^esA* Siiis con oa3^ be liooe at ooe radim 
if tha pc»mr ii:q?ut i& to be constant along tSoQ apm of the blades. Fes' 
tM0 deai^ the £Kiwer i^pfut m^. oas'UQtiid eooiistimt radi&Uy &nd tins lueon 
xndiiiG wi^ seljactod to bav@ the chstnge la t4m@isa3tial v<@locity e^p^al to 
the rofcatloEttl speed. Froa eaiperieuc® a 6a3a>-tip radiw ratio of 0.7 
waa selected for the first rotor. Several f'-ictors vhich ©xided this 
Qolection were that the Gce:g?reo«or wai^ smd inlest aoree secticm wer« 
not critical suacl it w-iS 'bolie'vied that ©uch e hig^ hub-tijp radius ratio 
would produce the flit ogperatisg ebgcssMrfcerietic <Ieeir®d. It i#ae «UMRa»d 
that tb& flow directioa ^*U9 ^ixial at till radiul stations. On the 
aAsoBlptiQa that eactul flew eadisted at oil s\iAi^& ursd that the power iiq?xit 
would "ba coixataat over the Bpan of the "blade for lall staseft, no gulto 
vanes wttre used* With jao guide vanes, both the rator and the etator couia 
b© closigaetd to turn the flow «usiaUy, ia theiz- rosp«s!Ctiv« coordiimtesj, 



- 17 - 

mly «tt the imm radius for all otKigee. Tberefaeti, the wctor dlagraw 
aaee ajuaaetrical only' at tije wsaa wkHus. A tj^ical BjKiaetriGal vector 
dla^aa lo shown in Figure 3« Hofce that here tte oaeial velocilty ie 
ogjaal In aasnitMie to tii© rabational imlocity* 

!iaie numerical values of the rotatlOEial ©peed, siaa bsnce, tht 
sta^mtion-preiBmjre ratio per ©tftge, wes?® Belected by considering ti»e 
■blaas dlffueion Idtoits ead tlae Mbch Gxatoer ttttaiaalble wtthomfc chokisag. 
!33ie dlfftision limit used was the static-jeresatsre rise divided lay the 
relative enterliig iiagpact prcs&ure. ^.^ .'^ n , • A imxiiaum vaLua of 

0*^ VE0 Selected frees cascadje data fcoc tMs paaraaaeta?* tElse relative 
esntearine Ijapact sreseure was m&& as hi«^ .«s pmctioal to attain a hl^ 
pspeesm'© raUo per stage. Hence, the only liajit m the r«latlTO entering 
iESestct psreesure is Itet of chcMas in tbs blade paesase. 233© inlet-^ir 
angles are lew and Hbe soUdities are high so ao to produce the high 
turning angles re^suired. With theee high soXiOitie© ©ad Iw inlet-air 
angles the entering ifeda maoabsx is liMted to about O.TT at the measx 
raditas. lacroasins the «aial wlocity or the rotational speed mus 
ccaffiiaarefi e^pjally effective as a -mam of attaining a hi^ jngJUitiw 
iqpact sw«8s«re. In other wcsrcLe, the limiting valjue of the diffusicai 
limit Tias eosQSJiaared to he irsaesjenjatofc of the rotor iiil«t««ir axigle. 

After eelBcpUng thcj orv^riall «S©s4^ values such aaj atagna^iem 
pireGsia?© ratio, weis^ now, inlet huh-tip radius ratio, and the condl- 
tl<aa that the miaX velocity shall toe c^wartsat at all radial atiOiiatm, 
a t&o (aifflensional eUsslsn is&s coqpufced. To «ina?lliir the coB©utins> the 



m 3.8 • 



d^mtty v&B aeexnaed constmxt &t all x«dii. Since con«t»xxt; deaalty 

aXonig the radii ym used to fiztd tbe as^iraicieaQte ml^lE3®> ccOy tiie warn 
rsMxm vae ccjsi>ufced. Mter sKowsral tarlals, the ntsB*ier of ettognf reiaatrecL 
to sroouce tbe given ovoraXl sts-^p^aticEi preo&izre ratio without exgaet2,ins 
Bta^ lisdtaticme wut detemdisM* Al«o» tiie rotetiac»l speedy tlte 
jsa^situSe of the axial volocity, «u3d the huh«tip j:<suliu£( ratio for oXL 
stages vas flsed. %lng the results of this oxipitaAicxi a three» 
dijatnalonal tve^-ypatbess. Osiai^ vaa coBsg^tcid* For this design the dea* 
slty voB assuaged a V£iiria1}3a alcsas the l^lMe spu^* Co^wideriiog the f InBt 
ata^e ana the conditicaaa l^t tb& potmr itipiut is Gcsastant oioog tha tspan, 
the density is a variable, and tMt Aix;^ radial e^E^iilihrium exists 
dowtietream <^ the hladis, the velaiht flov ^-ms cb@olaed i»ii3g the 'valties from 
the previous two-dlneaeioaal dasi^. If the conditicais could not he xaet, 
the only variabOfi that has not been fixed is iSm haib-tip radius ratio. 
ijhen all the conditions imstt net tte matt stage vao conpited. Since there 
were maaerous iterations to ha daae, this irark was carried out cm a Bell 
AaaOog comsjoter. Froa taie three difflensional dssign vedwe- diagireiaB, trial 
blade selectitK^ wenra nade to check the cholcins Hsich Quoft»er* IQxls applet® 
asettaod «as tarried throu# several tajae® bef cs?e the final design was 
selected. For the final design an axial velocity of 65O feet p» second 
eM a tip speed of ^50 feet per aeacs^ were cho0en» 033© awsragge sta@« 
jjation presaure ratio per etta^ vas set at l.fil7 which panaltted an 
overall deeisa pressiwe mtio of 5*25 to be attaiaaod ia si* stages* Ttm 
vector diagraiaB for the first stage are slKwa in Figure h and pertiiTfiot 
mmertmX values fcac all atages are given in Steble 2 (s«t psi^s 19). 



.%x 



J 



- 19 - 



lEABLE I.- DESIGN VALUES FOR TEST COMPRESSOR 



Blade 
row 


Radius 


M 


ft /sec 


ft /sec 


deg 


deg 


a 


Chord 


°^o 


a, 
deg 


P - a, 
deg 


deg 


°- - oreq; 
deg 


Rl 


0.667 
.582 
A98 


0.786 
.746 
.710 


650 


550.7 
481.0 
411.3 


40.5 
36.5 
32.3 


28.9 
36.5 

45.4 


1.30 
1.42 
1.60 


2.178 
2.089 
2.000 


i.4o 

1.70 

2.00 


18.1 
21.6 
25.4 


22.2 

14.9 

6.9 


2.1 
2.1 
2.1 







SI 


.667 
.582 
.498 


.689 
.720 
.765 


650 


420.1 
481.0 
562.5 


32.9 
36.5 
40.9 


32.9 
36.5 
40.9 


1.40 
1.48 
i.6o 


2.545 
2.172 
2.000 


1.61 

1.78 

1.98 


18.4 
20.5 
25.2 


14.5 
16.0 
17.7 









■ 




R2 


.667 
.595 
.523 


.759 
.726 
.695 


650 


550.7 
491.3 
431.9 


40.3 
37.1 
33.6 


50.5 
37.1 
44.6 


1.28 
1.38 
1.51 


2.140 

2.064 

1.988 


1.52 
1.78 

2.04 


18.6 
21.7 
25.1 


21.7 

15.4 

8.5 


1.4 
1.9 

2.0 


-.5 



-.8 


S2 


.667 

.695 
.523 


.674 
.701 
.737 


650 


438.3 
491.3 
558.8 


34.0 
37.1 
40.7 


34.0 
37.1 
40.7 


1.4o 
1.47 
1.56 


2.345 
2.198 
2,051 


1.61 
1.73 
1.91 


19.5 
21.5 

25.4 


14.5 
15.8 
17.3 


1.1 

1.3 
1.2 


-.1 

-.2 



R5 


.667 
.605 
.5'+3 


.733 
.705 
.679 


650 


550.7 
499.6 
448.6 


40.3 
37.6 
34.6 


51.8 
37.6 

44.0 


1.35 

1.44 

1.55 


2.116 
2.051 
1.983 


1.60 

1.85 

2.05 


18.8 

21.6 

24.5 


21.5 
16.0 
10.1 


1.6 
1.8 

1.4 


.8 
.8 

1.0 


S3 


.667 
.605 
.545 


.659 
.682 
.712 


650 


453.3 
499.6 
556.5 


34.9 
57.6 
40.6 


34.9 
57.6 
40.6 


1.40 

1.46 
1.53 


2.345 
2.219 
2.092 


1.61 
1.72 

1.86 


20.4 
22.0 
23.8 


14.5 
15.6 
16.8 


2.0 
2.0 
2.2 


-.4 
-.4 



■Kh 


.667 
.615 
.560 


.709 
.685 
.663 


650 


550.7 
506.4 
462.2 


40.3 
37.9 
35.4 


32.8 
37.9 

45-5 


1.34 
1.46 
1.60 


1.007 
1.007 
1.007 


1.59 
1.75 
1.91 


20.0 
22.2 
24.6 


20.5 

15.7 
10.8 


2.1 
2.1 
2.1 







^ 


.667 
.613 
.560 


.644 
.664 
.688 


650 


465.7 
506.4 

554.9 


35.6 
37.9 
40.5 


55.6 
37.9 
40.5 


1.34 
1.46 
1.60 


1.023 
1.023 
1.023 


1.83 
1.88 
1.93 


19.9 
21.3 
22.7 


15.7 
16.6 

17.8 












R5 


.667 
.620 
.573 


.686 
.666 
.648 


650 


550.7 
512.0 
473.3 


40.3 
58.2 
36.1 


35.7 
38.2 
43.1 


1.54 
1.44 
1.56 


1.007 
1.007 
1.007 


1.63 
1.77 
1.91 


20.6 
22.6 

24.8 


19.7 
15.6 
11.5 


2.3 

2.4 
2.5 





-.5 


S5 


.667 
.620 
•575 


.629 
.646 
.667 


650 


476.0 
512.0 
553.8 


36.2 
58.2 
40.4 


56.2 
38.2 
40.4 


1.54 
1.44 
1.56 


1.023 
1.023 
1.025 


1.83 
1.87 
1.92 


20.5 
21.7 
22.9 


15.7 
16.5 
17.5 


.6 

i 


.1 

-.2 

-.1 


r6 


.667 
.626 
.584 


.665 
.648 
.632 


650 


550.7 
516.6 
482.6 


4o.3 
38.5 
36.6 


34.5 
3S.5 
42.8 


1.34 
1.43 
1.55 


1.007 
1.007 
1.007 


1.66 
1.79 
1.91 


21.4 

23.2 
25.1 


18.9 
15.3 
11.5 


2.9 
2.9 
5.1 


.5 
-.2 



S6 


.667 
.626 

.584 


.615 
.629 
.647 


650 


484.7 
516.6 
553.1 


36.7 
38.5 

40.4 


36.7 
3B.5 
40.4 


1.34 
1.45 
1.55 


1.025 

1.025 

1.023 


1.85 
1.87 
1.91 


21.0 
22.1 
25.2 


15.7 

16.4 
17.2 


1.1 
1.1 
1.3 


-.1 
-.1 




• 20 - 

The throat ar«sa for the f imst rotor was trit&ia 5 p«p<5ent of tlifi 
two-diisensiorial cbdfelng valus at all radial stati<me for design flow, 
lb allovnaace vas cKuie for IiouBdary iB^rer dis^^lacsssent tMclenees in -Uie 
inlet 8M»1 ncnae for tbe IxJixraiary-l^yer grcwtti throu^ tlss cocapressor except 
afi iaclucifid in the dejsign adiabotlc efficiency assisaption, "She adiebatic 



efficiency \%aiate,tiG = 



u 



, 7 



- 1.0 



l& the idetO. teBqptsratux'e 



rise based on isentrople condlti(M3s di-vided Ijy the actiml or meajsured 
teiGp^dtts^e ri«e. In otrder to cA^t&ln & realistic value of the actual 
t«»5>eratuj?e rise in the clseign of a ccrapreseor, the etaigoaticai pressure 
ratio ex^gomait (in the ieentrospic tecgierature rise ejcpE^oeion) is aultl- 
plied by an efficiency value which incluci©© losses tsrcm boundary-lcQfler 
grcwth^ boundary-layer displi^iesaent in the inlet, dif f iesrencea 'betweon 
real oews 'valiieB and jiex'fect gas valjies, irreijolsri-ties in t^ flov, . . « 
fl^. ais efficiency is £^vea the neaae of polytrc^ic edfflcieacy, Ttast 
design efficiency them beacxaes 



Ti 



%£iJUiibatic 



7 



1.0 



^2 



ng7 

^^\ 7-1 
V^lj 



1.0 



Pear Bost conventional catapr'essor deaigis a value of 90-peaPcent polytaro^ic 

effUcisncy has Ijoen fouaa by experience to Tse reliable. A value of 



- a - 

Q^-percGut jpolyfero^ic ©ITiciaicy vas bellraed 2*©aXistJic Sosc Uil© coia* 
^Btossor aoxmidotisg Uiat tJse tsstiises c£ erne blacie row baw a cca^id« 
embly lower velociti,- relsti-w® to the f oilowlne row which is not ti» 
case of laore ccxiventtcMml hit^r ti^napeed coqpressQre . In the 
conventional caapreaiaor, tlse velocity la tbe wals© relfifclve to tbe 
follc»d.n£: rem is ai^!t&'o:^:^^''^2£i.t£l^ et^^tol is lati^gnitude to tiMt of ti» free* 
stresaa air. ffeeee ■yelocitieB have a large gradieoat in flotf anglft 
coEpsrsd witai that of the £tqq stream iBlet flow, fii this deoiga, 1±e 
wake© have a Mpallar difference in, directicsD aad a larsiar deficit la 
vslocity. 5ehiu lew-energy air Ib able to continue flowing dosmBtreoBi 
throxi;Tjbi tbe difTuser, tJmt is, the next blaas rm, laecauee it receives 
«EBsrs5f froK the rree 6ti«eaia by tiwfoulent ssUcirif^. fhis laUcing was 
erMtrarlly asuiiraed to restat In & ^-piffirceat penalty Ik polytro^^c 
efficiency. IHm ea»ct -valu® of S5.8-.percenft polyti-oplc efficiency m& 
chosen because ttos polyfcro^c asq?<Ma«nt of tlic tcE^Besrattire la then a 
eonveaiexst iKteger for iise in the Bell Analog coE^tw. 233® aesign 
adiabatlc elTicifflacy, or tecipemtiire efficiency, for tbe d^ign sta^» 
natlcei pr^aure ratio of 5i^ itm founa to toei <3a,8 parent « 

Blade Selection 
A» »CA a « 1.0 ivaaWan loading on isolatea lairfoile) amtOim 
with an lACA Id-seriec thicJcnesa dimtributlon ms used for all blades. 
SSj^e wsr® selected because ths resTaltiag fiw jgmmgs (toefewweo Ijlades) 

bad a ©treaawis© mriaiion of eroee-sactloual laai^ea that ym oomidemd 
deiiiratole. The roascHx being tiat the mtniiatm area (or throat) o<«njrred 



-u^ 



- 22 - 



l>etire«?n the 5-perceiit and 20-porcent chord points, aaad the psfleags area 
iacHpeaoeci amootfaajr from tbat poiafc to tlie trailiae esige. Aaother Uopoz'- 
taj:^ c<»mlderation dictating this clJoic^ vm the Ijarge oaaaat cjf cascade 
data a\«iiablo far tMs aseanliro. 

A WBrtmnH tMcl^nesfi oC S'percextt vae selected tar all Made sections. 
TtxLG vm a GanpraBcLse betveen ttte deoire far tlsln blade sections {troa 
cbokisg oonelderationB) and foi" thick 'biMs sections (to permit & vide 
ansLe-of -attack reno^ sa<i to pwvi<3« » ^Jick enough rotor WaCbst root 
section so that a t^-eadcd s£»smk fastening could 'be uaed). 

!Sb« tTlade gectioQ oani^ar^ and setting esiglaa uere f omid directly 
f]*<» the Icnr^speed coecode data of xtsferes^ce 3* ^iSse desigmtlc»;t of tbe 
blsdie sectioaas selected in c^ven in ISoiils n, (see pag^ 25) . 13tifej?« aa?e 
only four different tol®de tj^fi la tJie ccagpreaKsr, these are for rotcaw 
and statorts 1, 2, end 3, and rotoars and stat<KP0 4, 5» sod 6. Soch rosr 
trithla the gro^p diffoz^ only in i!%uiial lengtl:i &nd blodo eetting angle* 
!Ehe Mades were selected for the vector dlasraass of tb® first row of 
each groi^. Tiis blades i/ere tl)en natcbed as veil as possible to the rxsast 
1a*o rows. For rotor mmiber 5 it was naceseary to chaacje the solidity in 
order to meet the deeiga -wector diagiw>»# la O^le I (see jose 19), 
the coliffisn, labeled a - csj;^ Ib the acaouat the deelgn angle at attack 
differs frora the ©Bgie oif attacl: selected for a peaJs-free preeaure 
dlfitrilftition at low apaed a& puhUfibed in refereaee 5. fhe coluasn 
laheled & • oteg'd ©hows the difSterence betwcea the ansle of attack 
#t t^blch thisi blade wouM procSace the deaired tBEcning aikgle and the aaagl^ 



- 25 - 



TABLE II 



BLADE DESIGNATIONS 



Blade 
row 


Radius 
(ft) 


Blade 
designation 


Blade 
row 


Radius 
(ft) 


Blade 
designation 


Rl 
SI 


0.667 
.582 

.1+98 

.667 
.582 


l6(ll+Aio)o8 
l6(l7Aio)o8 
16(20A]_q)08 

i6(i6.iAio)o8 
16(17. 8A10) 08 

16(19. 8A2_o) 08 


Ri+ 

Si+ 


0.667 
.613 
.560 

.667 
.615 
.560 


l6(l5.9Aio)o8 
16(17. 5Aio)o8 
l6(l9.1Aio)o8 

16(18. 3Aio)o8 
l6(l8.8Aio)o8 
16(19. 3Aio) 08 


R2 
S2 


0.667 
.595 
.523 

.667 
.595 
• 523 


l6(l5.2Aio)08 
16(17. SAio) 08 
16(20.4Aio)o8 

i6(i6.iA]_q)o8 
l6(l7.3Aio)08 
i6(i9.iaio)o8 


R5 
S5 


0.667 
.620 
.573 

.667 
.620 
.575 


l6(l6.3Aio)o8 
16(17. 7Aio)o8 
16(19. lAio) 08 

l6(l8.3Aio)o8 
16(18. 7A10) 08 
l6(l9.2Aio)o8 


R5 
S5 


0.667 
.605 

.543 

.667 
.605 
.5i^3 


i6(i6A]_o)o8 
16(18. 3Aio)o8 
16(20. 5A10) 08 

i6(i6.iAio)o8 
i6(i7.2Aiq)o8 
i6(i8.6Aio)o8 


r6 
s6 


0.663 
.626 

.584 

.667 
.626 

.58i^ 


16(16. 6Aiq) 08 

16(17. 9Aio) 08 
l6(l9.lAio)o8 

16(18. 3Aio)08 
l6(l8.7Aio)o8 
16(19. lAio) 08 



- 2lt - 

c^ attack that is available using the first blade of each group* ®ie 
available angle of attack is a functi<m of the "blade twlet and the 
regjoi'-'ements of th& other radial stations of the bocbo blade. 

All the blade chorcis for the first threo stages were neuie about 
2 inches in lensth so that the Reynolds nvsssbev could be kept above 
onenjiuarter aiillion for an atraosidaeric diacharge pressiare at design 
conditions. The chord of iixo blades for the laet three stages wm 
Q^I^Eraad£]ately 1.0 inch. 

SSschonical Design 

The coBjplete siKHrtage axial-flow coEpressoir, as tested at design 
blfide setting angles, ie shown in Figures 5(a) and 5(b). Ihtt blades for 
•abxf first three staMges yeve fabricated from 20(24 )T alxaniniaa alloy, while 
tboee for the last three stages vere fabiricated traa 4l6 heat*treatod 
stainless steel. All bladec were cut on an airfoil duplicating laachine 
and. hand poliehed. The blades were aounted by tvcmed shanke which 
allowed variable blade Betting ajaglea. Ito finish turn the shanks, 
notches were cut in the blade roots as shown in Figure 6. Decauoe of 
the contour of the inner caee, the shank sise^ am the chord length, ths 
notches were largest in rotors 1, 2, aaad 3. ^Eheee notcbea extaaded over 
6 percent, 7 percent, and 8 percent of the blocle sffBaa, respectively. 

Vflth the hlah eoUditiea choaen, there would be no clearance between 
the blade fastening mxtB when a sliB|p3je drilled dnaa was ixsed. The 



- 25- 

with licaii Visual moimtins Taloclte, as sbown in Figure 6, wbb used. 
Figure 6 also ahowa tbe Bjethod tssed to hold the last block in place. 
tteing this type of fasteoinE allewed the ®oli<31ty to ^ changed in any 
of tJie rotors "by roaovlns blades aM inserting spgiciEg blocke* The 
stator blades were aoimted by drilling the outer casing. 

Figure 7 is a cross section of the caqpreseor. (IBaie diffU0«r na© a 
5.8*^ conical iiiaer case (the diaseter varyiog from l4 inches to 12 inchee 
as ahoHSi in Figure 7) aad a radial diffuser i&hcmx in Figure 8). A 
roller bearing wis installea on the inlet end of the shaft to carry the 
radial load aiid any traasverse laoveiaeat of the fsteft caujsHSd by 
e3£paii0i<ai. 5Ms bearing was lubricated by mi oil-aist sjaray. Ttm 
bearing asaeEibly at the exist of the conpressor cccsiater of a roller 
beariiiE carrylzjs tits i-edial loM and a Ktn^bury type sjterical seated 
thrust bearing carrying the thnist load. The r&xc asseotoly vaa lubri- 
cated by a preaaiarized liquid oil systeio. 

ProBi eatperience the tip clearance «as aet at from 0.025 to 0.ce5 inch 
v(b&n cold. 'BvLb assured a rea&c«table allowance for esipa&sion vhile 
running. 

After the construction odf the coi^pressor waa ccazgpleted it vbs 
aseeasibled in the test etand described in the nescfc sectloo. 



- 26 - 

•Hse coBapres8<»» lieet stand was cJeslgned ia accordaaqe with BACA 
©taEKJards as deeca'lbed la reference 6, a plaii view of vMch is ebcswn in 
FigJire 8. la order to bave low turbulence xaaiAona flew in the test 
section the follotflng mere ueod: (l) a 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 'oy 7 iacb booey 
coBfl) grid; (2) three 100 m&h screens; (3) a 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 8 inch 
hoaaycooft) grid; (It) » 6o w&sh &GTmni and (5) a 20 to 1 rediiction from 
& circxilar settling cbaal>er to the axam3Ar test secticoii (aee Fig. 8). 
located behind the test co«aprea&or i© a -vainles© radial diffuser into 
which the test jsediya Is discharged. This low velocity EQedlian is then 
IMi&acd throu^^ two aircraft-'type radiator© "wiilch aro xised to remove the 
h©at from the laadiian. A dnM-type throttie valve, with a butterfly -mae 
on the iipstre<saB end, is used to increase tlse back la^essure cm the com- 
js-essor. Ible throttle val\e coaBiste of two c(»centric perforated drums, 
the outer one being driven by on electric actuator* when the hole© in 
the two drums are about 50 percent closed, the butterfly vane is geared 
to close. This allow® a seraeitive control on the mass flow. Betiwen 
the tlnrottle valve and the settling ohaaiber is a calibrated venturl. HSo 
aeaure low twhulent flow in, tlie venturi, a 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 "by 7-inch 
honeyoQBb grid ^g»a us«d in the inlet of the venturi. 

With this installation tim coBpresaor can be tested in a laeditMa 
of air or Pireon-12 aod also tested m a closed or open cycle Byatem, 
2o run as a closed cycle oyatesa the ventiiri is connected to the settling 



-w^' 



- 27 - 

dbaaflser as ehown by the dashed line in Figure 8. Toe ■«» ospen cyclfi 
syutem teats (aolid line© la Fig. 8), the ©di' is filtered before 
entering the settlins ahs^sbev. Between tba filter and tiie settling 
• daaaaSber is a 20-indi diaraeter gate valv« used for throttling '. It is 
aestaned that with the str«l©l£fcening vanes \aiif onn flow ia present at 
the inlet of the coiqpressor for both system, fbe air is dlschar^d 
after passing through the venturi tube. For this oaa^premBcce the 
tesjs)erature rl8Q in air was larger than the tesmiperature drc^p acrcwa tiie 
radiator, therefore, tba open cjnsle Bystem vas used for all of the air 
teetins. All tegting in Frean»12 was done in a closed loofp system. Since 
th« contsaainetion cxf the i^m would pi'oduce erroneoue results. Kje cobv 
pressor was dariven by sl 3,00CWicra^sower iadiiction aotor with a two 
shaft, 2.CXL511, Polk Ejpsed increaee. 

JEastriaasntatlon and Test Ksrocedisr© 
Ctoe xasrfcbod of indicating the overall perf csraanee of a conpressor is 
Tgiy msasiarine the tengperat-ure efficiency and the tama flosr. VS3& teDapera- 
isare efficiency can be coi^siated firoa the overall sta^ation tea^peratxire 
rise and tb& overall stasnation pressure rise (see t«B©erati»r© efficiency 
e^pttition in s;ytabols). !Ihe loass flow is aoMtored by th& oallbrated 
venturi reeter (Fig. 8). Another efficiency used is the torqpie efficiency 
^i^ch is cccqputed from the vork some <m the medium and the torqjue re<xuired 
to do this work (see torqjue ef:^ei®icy eqouatlon in eytsBtols). Theoe ^xee 
"bqffch overall x-alues. ^Ehe static pressure rise alone the outer csaae gives 
an indication ho» each blade row i« perfosrariLns in relaticm to the others. 



- 2© - 

Fca" this coopresBor radial raSiee v®re ueocl to laeajsure the stag- 
imtion teaqperatTiXt} sM tins Gtagnetixei pressure (Fig. 9)* 'Sim aiprQatlxafi;^ 
location of the ateasm-ing statiom aarei Station 1, ^ inciaes absad of the 
fii-et rotcrj atatlon 2, 1 Inch tiehind the eiatb stater^ and station 3* 
6.5 Inches behind tije eiacth stator as ehonn in Figure 7. 

aSie inlet etosnation teniperatiire dietributiOfn was OBfteunsd by 
five dou"ble-ahlelded chranBl-altnael theraocosjgples &qpall;^ s|&ced, 
0.16 inclMi& apart, along a radial rafeo (Fig. 9) • The rate was etgtjally 
opaoed in the annulus at etation 1. The Inlet stagnaticm pre»s\nr« was 
laeaatjred by two 0.0i5*ir.cli diameter static-pressure carifice© iai thft 
oettllng cbaB&MKT. Fxxsei previous calibrations j, it vaa found that theae 
static ^pressure orifices indicated the sane pg!«flsi£re as a stagnation 
preasto^e prc^ in the inlet, ^he eb8<^Axte inlet stagnation tesasperatixre 
waB irtdicated by two doiible-ehi«l(3*Hcl iran^canGtantaa thermocouple bells 
px the settling cteajtoer. The roiflJlal static preaetire dietributlon was 
cliac^oBd around tlie outer case at Btation 1 by fo^:r , 0.025-inch diaaaeter, 
statlc-preasure orifices QijiMiLly spaced airouQd. the circwaiference. 

^2© ealt inBtnaaentatioKi for the first thi-ee testa was located 
at ataticm 3- Two 8ta;^]3Qation t^ooiperature ra^^s of tha ^mm tjm^ ae used 
at station 1 were vjted to raeasijre the otagnatlon teasperatiire at etatlosi 5« 
Site etagnation prefitwre distribution vus Measured by two atagnation 
preestxee rakes (Pig. 9) consieting of eleven O.OoO-inch diazaeter tubes 
each. Sach of these ral«B, etagnatlon t«©cra.t«re and stagnation pressi*e, 
vere equally spaced ntiiially m^^c^a the aimiilua. Site two sta^g^ation 



■^ 



- 29 - 

tes^peratfure raloee wcsre located at cP and iSo*' erouijd tJae circuiaCfflreace 
looMng in ^be directian of flow aad th© two stacjtmticm presBure raises 
were located at 90^ aasd 270*^arcwind the circusa^erencie lookins in tbe 
sQiae direction, ttpe 0tati.c-prefisisre dlstri'SRJticaa wm dbedced around 
t^ outer oaee at stations 2 laad 5 oy four Qqpallif spaced O.C315-inch 
dlfioeter statie-pressffure orifice© located at eadi etatioa. 

For 'Uie resaetlning tasts^ one of the ots^fvo^tiCK)^ testg^eraturo raises 
and one of the etagnaticai presetire ratos were aaoved f re® station 5 to 
statioii S* This vu& doiie to determirte vhethfor tbei'^ was any clsange in 
the rstdlal distribution closer to the sixth stator. Tim circtwferentiiiUL 
location of the ntagaatioa t^M^erature and s'fiias'iatioa paressure rates at 
stationo 2 and 3 vas u£2tc»x]iiK2d so tlmt the rakes v^rQ in tbe center of 
one of the eixth sta^or blade ym»a0m» 2t "oa^ &£&vimd tb&t tba valsBS 
frcsra tte ©ixtb stator had little effect aa. tha reawitiag laeaetwawnts. 

Tbtt conpreaeor e^ml^^st i«eisht flcM (veii^t f Icn; oaaed on etacdard 
conditicois of pressure aod tmff&g^tMre:) vae Avbeastsimd from the calibrated 
veaturi aeter (Fig. 8). All of the stagnatiaa teaiSJaratiareB were indicated 
cm a recordii^s Hionaapolia Uoe^sywell self -hali^Qciiis poteBtiocieter . iUl 
of th» Btagnation and etortic soE-eBStares were indicated cai a miltiple-tube 
back-li-siitad aercviry naiiomater board and recca-diCd s-tiaultaneously hy 
Shotofsreq^hlng the naoaQsoter hoemi* !£he rotox* speed was anasux^d by a 
OflMnercial Strobocoa t^saixii^ inBtr\sfflent. A fluctuation of 1 percent was 
found to be preaest lii Ui& control eyateffl, 

la order to obtain an iMiaati<Hs of the wor^ dom by each blade 
PW (Btatic-jreaDure orifices, 0.015«inch in disaaetor, wexvs located 



-^ 



• 30 • 

fttiead of each bl£u3e roe in the 8«bib posHtiOQ etal&tive^ to the bladefi 
a« itibown in Figure loCb}* 

fbti vslooity of &<Ksid. in Fr9oa<-12 air ml:stitre vm aeasured by 
&aa, isssstxvBcm^ ftixaila^ to tliat cLatscri)3ed in v&SQT&Qas 7* fUth tlxU» 
Idte characteri8tio» of tbe Esixture and tbe ^t?ysical prc|>erti®s of 
1^ Ite Bieidium ^mre detssratiziod* 

la order to aet^^rmlr^ tbe effect cm tlt» ooeap^eeoor of moist^ire 
coBtecEfe in tha taaact rawaitsaa watesr «a© spara;^ into the inlBt. - Pour 
noss^la®, e<3aally space<a> €i»d 22 ixsahm alisad of the first rotor vere 
lusod. Tlis water vius i^pns;^ in at wuqirtng rates vith tlie supp3^ 
piiessure (60 pcuodfi par miuwe indh) telz^ tto ifi»-t3timm« !Sie oiaount 
ol" T*3tep injected wa» naamtred tjy a caaraerctol flosisastea:'. 

'Xlw follawiag proo^duro mu» used ^MlMm testlntg in air. In order 
to <^}taln a consta&t fi(|)®ed qperatlfig liM tdie spesoda ^tuare correcrted to 
stsuQ^yurd KftCA tcaa©®£utia?e Ixjfore running* ^Xii© eliEtiaaated -wariations 
caused 1;^ 'mr^aktiM izilet teaeporaturtee. A (ypxm ccrrected {q?«ed ww act 
at fuH-ojwo tdirott}^* For tlws© tests the ii^ettroaaa throttle vas used. 
She stufpaticsi tfa^perattre rise and i^baft tor(|ue uore recorded and a 
^K^logrdspti WW tttlasQ osf t2ie «9tt»an»ter board* At the mme spe^ the 
throttle vm closed io arbitrary iacresoente, about 8 to 2jO, lawtil the 
stall region ms r^iobs^* 'Sim stall rQQX<m mm detoratood 1^ tbe 
dtense in the stagnation pressure riae and the eouztd of the GCEpFeatior* 
F»OB poftt «aiperienoe, it is imom that emtiaemttmm Hav* a definite 
jwlaatiag eoma. and irlhratioa when the stall rogicsn i® rmcbed. 



- 31 - 

Vilratitai ImHaitcBCG were aounted at Tooth the inXet ana cstit q£ the 
ooBg^araffieor cm the oixber casing to iadlciiKte thasc vlbrutlcms. Ftcm 
IMt v21»uti«n l»dlQa«Qr9j» thai pEtsssure rlse^ tusX the audible sounds, 
tbd stall y«gta» «ae dstosralQeid* For (j^tqc^ of 70 porcenb of design 
anu. hii^^ber this polrst wis the mxcs& poiixt, or poiat vbare tJbe ccsv^uete 

It "wm -Uie boia^lary ctf xrrtatlzig tttsll. '^fia&a ^lAtSk bad t^een t&toQ at all 
throttle posjltlon, the roftational ^peod waa difiBa^^ oad the fiisae pro* 
cedui^o vaa foUcweti* 

^She testlag proceaure xtjbb the 0«ae for o^^ezutlne In Fr®(m»12 
&a that iaaieatQa ubovs, ^'i-'he air ^poeSc vext» conxicted to I'^oo'-lS 
epoodt» Toy the foUowlaa reLitioiif (r(sf • 3) aggtwlng th@ saiae ostering 
ibkoli ZHStiMer for air ana Frec8i'»12 testing. 



S3S. 



'ail- 

■I miW— II 111 SZ 



?E 



T? 



2 + (7 - 1)%' 



X/2 

air 



^'^Piwaaa-ia 



^R 



2 ir (7 , l)M;i^' 



V2 
Fireon-12 



•a» R in thfc £t^vi3 eqijatlcm is the universe! 0i» constant* 
&2nee a closed-Xoqp a;yiiti5a was ueod for operui^ion in iVooc-lS the a;yBtoia 
jras&ur© could oe eostrolleci. It was »et at dbaat oifle<4ialf aft atwos- 
pisepo foe all fi'^o::-!^ teots . TbM throfttle in thef^ test ffteuad v&& vmS. 
tcBC all -tha Freoa-12 testa* 22je act'tsil xvsxaSiia proofiKlwpQ ipb© the 
&8 given for air. 



^>y 



. 52 - 

2a ^^(Ser to r««»ch OfeBign ccaocUtioc® fefae blaiSe aefctJaE ansl«» wen 
t^&&% &33d tilie madblQins Botcbeo at the root oT iibsi lalMes In tbe 
first tixc&a rotors vere fiHod. ©iKa© swdlficatioKts w<2re ^elgmted 
«» camfia»rati€»» B sc^d C resspectiv^* In &a atteqpt to ixicyteM 

tb£^ £2&% <3ifsmaAXi& raagj^ of tls@ o^KSfap^nsar the tiCUiiSa f»er^lag aziglMi 
ctf tiM9 first tsjo stugiBa -mx^ iiMsrea»9d siKd tatiose of thB last two 

eoaoriguautlccQ D. Tije solidity of tiae flKwt r<*tflr va« a®<area»ed in 
an atteogt to ixusgrnusm the fl»t operating rAiiG« oT the eoB^resoor. 
^iiis saoaificatioQ vurS. dcsi^pa't«d a« cocxfigurati<m B. 

TabXe m (see |)a{j^ 33) Usta tbe c<mfiguomtiQCU» giving tiie 

geoisstric cbou^, tbe speeds tast^d^ md. tlm test £K}<Uubi. 

£*re£MS£]tt;%tion of HeisuXtG 

A typical raii*l difitrlbtttion of tlwi ©tacjfj&tiiatt preesxre ratio 
taid t&i& rao&ismmSjamk 6ta,g73u.ti.a& tas^i^earatm'c :.^oe for the cceaprasAcr 
iSdaoSmtm at acsign epeed is ahcwa Ik Fi^jrzrc 11, 

Tbs area wwishfcod vtilu^ of th© stagnation ps^sm^sr© ratio eaa be 
fmaxL v^ first taultl;t>l;/iQ£; t^ etugoation j^rs&»ure rtitio by tte Incro* 
msBJAl «r9& tlut it acts aHf axsm&nQ tbese results <map the wtmaJixm, 




VBA 41viaing tigr ^ibi «Bai|laui. arsa^ '■ ' . It ms found t^t ttw 

«. rcir 



- 53 - 



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a » point maaSatar 
<^p|)rcKli9&te3ijr is<|aaX to tlm m?0a. vei^sbad value vtieu t±c6 «&cl point« of 

th® ntaaerical averaea Uteare aciittea. For r«^tortte3 purpo6«», tftar 
{saaeric&I aviKrA@e» voara twea fear tjo^ th@ etaeP^tion. ip'^see^ure ratio assd 
liha ftagoation toogpesmtur® riae. 

13)0 ovearaU perf oinmaace of tbe S0vti»r^ caif iaur^iicsift t«ret«d in 
pr»fts)ixto& In Fi^uree 12 ttsErcu^ 19* A 'bri^ Qtsamry osf tht re»aXta 
s^Sf0mit& in ^ble XV (csee pa^e 35)« 

A dlBeiasslCHi of the 3?esiiltB will foUcw ±ii tia? asa* 8«cti<sj. 







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- 55 - 





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- 36 - 

VI. DISCOSSIOH or BSSUMB 

Tbe compressor in Ita desiso ecsofiaoratloD, configuration A, hod 
the flat OFpejpatins characteristic (ceoateait /3ta.s»atio» preaatire ratio 
at constant speed over the operatiiig rsaage of the eoBpircssor} (Fig. 12(&}) 
tbat it vas dasij^oed for. It tms losr in rmiss flCRr ijr^ about k percent 
oad bad s i^eak stasoatioa presetire ratio of 3«0 as eosapered to the 
desigo value of 3*2?* Tbe teaop^rature effleiffiaey (Fig. 12(b}) at de8i@i 
speed waa 85 percent eocE^par^d vitb the deal^ tosiiierature efficiency of 
^.8 percent. Then posier input to tha co8i,prei0sor was Ixm b&' about 
32 mveent of Idw d«sl@a valAns. !IMe indie&tsa I^MKt the dfisign timslzts 
(sasXa vas not att&ined in one or laore of tbe Mad@ rows. 3to cAttcin an 
iMlcatlon of 'Uig) x^3«rs timt were sot Qpez^tlos at d«0i^ valites without 
extensiv© sxjrveys, the static presai»re rise &ioog tt^ outer case waa 
plotted (Fig. 12(c)}. In all the rows except the fotirth st&tcar rov tbe 
static pressure riae vea belof the design x-uLue. 99be paints uaed are 
refereiicscd to the ata^oatlCRi pr^isyre ratio amp (Fig. 12(a)} t^ Bo«m 
mnserala. At th® M^ sasa flCMSj^ or ops» throttle^^ the sixth statoar 
vas dioked. For thia eooft^watiOD tb@ static ^aresaure distrilautioa 
was |ar«i!tesrted for off deoiipat a£«eda (Fig. 12(c)). At off dastga opeeda 
the ooBprosaiKr operated vith tlie aama charaeteriatic as at deslgo speed. 
fhe slicth stator ehcdiod at M^ s^sa flows and the overall slia^ of tba 
static pressure distrltAstloo vast tiw ssott* ^Stga flat operatiag 
diaracteri&tlc is limited ^ tim s^pertgendc floir in the sixth etator 
at the hi^ waaa flam azsi the our^ polBt or rotatiag staU region at 



- 37 • 

th« <3)&h8r eactretM* Sii^ce i^ Gem^gaceeeat vem lelov t^ deeisa point tt» 
follcRdjig changes mxf^ tmSam SSte first rotcxr oriti tl^ fliretj eecoiad, lO^ird^ 
muSi fifth stator blA^ yom iMnre re&st to bicl)^.* l>Xata@ esttin^ anglxMi tt6 
lii$t«d in fah%0 WL, (see page 33). Thle \mB duxaa to iQareM34»9 the ofver* 
«XI ttta^mtioQ pr©&£ture ratio bxA the seaa nov^ »nd to laora eneEOjr 
&i@t3?ihu&s the static pressurss Mstrilnjtiosi by incroaeing tlie iiork dooe 
Ijy thi6 Wjo^ xttm that vere belosr the ti^ign tstatic pr^omire rise* ISifii 
I)i3£d& rom «md the dma^ in hlBxie setting fleogSfifi for these rm& wm 
dotwmimd ttxm previous dst^eariertce ectd the static pressure dietrihution* 

2h configusuticta B;» the stbove cheuQ@eci VQac« incoai^pagrated. IMq 
con(figt«<tttioa reached the cies'lgD nasa £1«3V (Fig* X3{^)), hut at a i^^sesuro 
satio of 3*1« 13ie t«!BS<axi»ture tittiaimxiy (Fig. 3^h)} vgms 7 perosat lownr 
^bem the t«aE)e«^tur@ effideaocy fcniml in ocxxfigumticm A (Fig* }£(b)>» 
% increasing t&m hlA^ aettiug mi^ijm in @ev<sraX qf tbs olads rows the 
static preoeure dietribiitio^i voe inomuHid «BdL lBac« emsmljr dietrihuted 
(Fijs* X5{c}) aa ecoE?«red vith t^wt fouad is coasfisuotmtim A (Fig. 12{c)} 
«t da^ign qpettd* ^iiJha @i3cth steAas xrov choked at t3s@ hi^ aBMi floti**. 

UK! ocftc^tea (Fig. 6) at the roert eM o^ the li^lAdee of the firet 
three rotoire vere hoUewd to he peeeVXy iw^^ciKielSiItt for 1^ loiier->tJb@n» 
dieei^ stftgimtiOBQ preesure ratio aad ten[pn!ieture «E£ficifl»cy. Sbeee 
aOi/e^ami «!KlMnaed rtiOiaUy for 6 percmst^ 7 percesot^ ead 6 peretast of 
the hlMtt w^^m tm rotora 1> &, m& % refl^gtectivel^* They eould ceuee 
fhm iMffiaraktien* If fl.ov eesTaratlon oceurred it vouXd oeuee a loir 
etfog^tiosa jpreswore r&tio and a lour pow«r ix^put for this zmehine. Ttieam 



. 58 - 

mitohes i»re filled vith balsa vood tat ttm iseat configumtloa^ 
cootf iguratitm C, to asc^rtsdUi v^aetber MipttratiQn vae occurring isxtd 
to etttflopt to correet this advsrae effect* 

fliB pftrfonoance of configuration C is sboim in Figure 14. 
gjlling the Dotcii^ xui^ed the mam flcm by X«>l/a perc<mt, the peak 
t<9V(R^ture efficicsicy by 6 percent, and ttm peak etagiaatioiQ pressure 
ratio trim 5*1 to 3*22, et dimi^ egeed. 'Bse ovezuU static inrttssurt 
rise far configuration C (Fig. l^c)) vas i3acrea«te<i to aiE>proKln»teiy 
the design aistributiOEti in oil stogss. By filling tli@ notcbee and 
reeettins tte blade eax<.^l&@ tcae B&vex&l rom^ the stagimticm preesure 
ratio, tfe© BBus© f lov, aod tlie static pressure rise were all raised 
to sBPPoasSxm.t&l^ deei^ valuer at th« Aasae oveaniU t«ngpear«tm<« 
efficiency (32 j}womxt)» 

Configuration C w» fidso tested uting Freon»12 b»3 ao a test 
aBdiud. BeoERise of tbo XoiKr ratio of aypecifie bB@it&, tlw t«qperatur« 
ri&e in Freoa-12 is less t!tmi that in adr for tiKt saaao stagnation 
preesurt imtio* IMs resiilts in a greater density vi&s in Fr«ft>n«12. 
A£fP«ndi3E B ahofis thftt far this ccopniftsor, tbs iiexnaity rise is effec* 
timtly 2*» perc«!»t £?reater in Frwan-12 that in air* Beoeuee of ttiifl 
hi^^r Oenflity, ttae oaa&ea^&csc will pa@s more voii^t flow and will 
Iwre a sw»t«ir effectiire annulas area at the exit, vath the higher 
iil«g^ f lov oDt Icmr eonic wlocity* the blade rmm vill operate ^t 
higher angles of attacls, progressively increosiag froii the inlet to 
the eacit. Ttds will oause stall at these hi^^ser weight flows and 
lijnit tho opttMtlcg i»a3@9 of the ocavressoer. 



^y 



- 59 - 

Figure 15 shmm the perfoi«azice of configuriiitiQn C tested In « 
fveaa'^%2 aedlua. T^ poak te&S)«roture efficiency and peak mta&Uktloa 
presssiire ratio are ^pMasdiiaatcXy the eaas ms that fcxmd txtm testing 
tM£ coanfiguraticm C in air (Fig. l4)j. "but UtB aaas floir lncrea8«d 
{i).X;9^roadiaat9l;y ^ percent* At tte&lgn speed, wd&. &bov@, tbe cxiciret«or 
bad a BiaauLler flat oipm^ting liiie for FreaB«12 (Fig. l>^(a.)) ae ccj^^ared 
with tiMt air teetfi (Fig. l4(a))* A poeeible rea&ou ic» tMft was given 
in the fosregoiijg paragrSjf^* !S)e static inre&Gure rise at afi«ign speed 
i%ad near stall (Fig* l^(c)) was approxiimtel^ the saiiai^ as for the air 
tests, but at the gjpe» throttle ccmdition it viae cansi(torably lover 
in the mid^concireseasr stages. Tm hi^bsr ws&s flcnm and aKLematch could 
accou2tt focr this drop in static ^resrure riKe. 'Sbs dip in the static 
jjop^mce rise only occurred at as low as 8:^ percent of desian speed for 
jEKff design cq^emtioo* Tbs sixth stetor psai»^ ime c^ked at the hi^ 
mss Hows at design and off design speeds* After tests of coa^fig* 
taratickn C were ccedeted the ent instruBiastfttiOia «ius chsuised to one 
*t«si»tlan teoseratxire raiss mxSL ccje stapettion presst.Te rato (st 
Btaticsi 2) eiad one of each, iz^tnanent at statioa 3* Tim data used in 
the rcssaining coBf igtiraticms «BSre tatoa from the iisstruBientatiem at 
statiea 2* 

Xq aa atteeq^ to increese the vei^it f loir cspesreting range of the 
QOlvreesca', the blade setting aaglM of rotors l.^ Z, 3, ?, and 6 vsre 
reset (as listed in ©sibl© HI, see psffls 35) so as to iaevmMi tifae j^oww: 
iap:^ in ite first t»o stages osd decrease it in tto rear stages. Qiis 
nodification will be noted m configuration i). Configta?atioa D was 



- liO - 

teBtea in edx first m& ite per^PoctnaiuMi aa# iB cbcom in Fl^ire l6. 
Sei cionipeariscaa with ccmfismmUoa C t^ts with air (Plg. 3A(a) ) there 

\m& no change in the flat {operating ranee «ttd -ttifire was very little 
effect on the perfozsoance. ^ baa been ftot&'a in £»revlous coofigucatiaoo 
tlte &l::th 0t«ktor passfi^ obobecL at all sp^de f cr aaaxiiauBB f lev conclitimis . 
At the WBartifflga flour ccKditiosi f oar all le^peeds tl^ie flow IxiM&d t^ sixth 
stator vaa axjperaaoic. At ^ctas cpeeciA^ tl% im3truQE^ntatic«i at station 2 
iotUcated no changs in S'tasoaticai preseure ratio at th& aa ati i aTO flour 
ccHVlitiom poesibly due to %hX& aupersordc flov> 

Configuraticm D was also tested with a Fr©<Hi«»l2 jaedium. fte cwsrall 
pgeiiaasamcQ ie pre^iented in Figuro 17> tTbs £ca>k @tao?aation prdssiire 
ratiO' aM peak taniperati^ire. effieianciss; vera tiae eaie ae co&figuratiosi C 
t«Bted vSth a Plrecsr^lS raeoiias. At lOO-percsent deaign opeed tmd above^ 
1^ flat operatii:^. rm^^ dearoe^es 6)|ip?aciabily ae vin&ta 'noted in 
cojf lt?jration C tests «itli a Freoa-12 laatiliaa. Bcwsever, tlie static 
iressure distrilbuticm vas aii^^>e»diaate3y tbe seaae m ths difitribution 
f CBjBjd f CO" ccaaflgitratioa C test8<3. with a ?reoa-12 jaediiim. 

35*8 solidity of rotor nmb&r oo« woe reduced for ccmflguration S 
Mdiiix tba expectation that this would iacraaae the tiUQi^v^ f loir <3!pex>ating 
rsa^ of Vm &xis>t9mop» SSae lower solidity rotor QhsyaM havsi a greetar 
variation in deviation angle aod hemca d«»lay ctall of the roar ata^s 
at tto lew weight flows* T^ reaults (operating range, p^ik «t«£^tiou 
p(Pesaiar« ratio, and srfeatic pressure dietributicaa) of ooafiguration B 
tested vitli air (Fig- iS) are tbe aane a« thosse found for o<xifigisrati<ai D 
tested with air (Fig, liS). For confi^^aration £, iib& tor^pj© efficiency 



- 1*1 . 



ie presented since the teraiperatiats readiags vere ia errosr. For previous 
cmSlmrataxtm, iihere hcfth teoswrateju-e eWLciJ&my and tcKnjtffii ejST icieaey 
iBBre avBdlotolejf the tanaj-xe efficl^nclee mnce s^pfosdanately ^ percent 
lopsr tiffifli the t^igjeratyre ei-ficiencie©. fhe po£& tc3rqj;» efficiency 
fof caafigiiraticm S test® with air w&e T7 peroeat at aefiign epeed. 
Tgc all the speeds the peak values ware frosa %• porceut to 6 percent 
lowsar as coopoared to the t«i©erature efficiencies presented fear pffe-vlaw 
coaf isMratione . 3as wcrjM them B«ffla tdmt tla^re was no chaage in the 
efficiency of t^ coc^aresiBOCE' aue to the lower ©olitlity of the first rotor, 
the 4-percent dttficit in tosHjiie ©ff ieiency, raoaGtiretl liy the tor^pie 
c<»3$(li»S, can be Bsrtially attributed to the ftletieKi of the two ball 
tiie£Mrln©B, three roUeac bMuriEgs, <Msa tianist b<3eriiiC-» ®nci three carTxxn 
Sdale in tlie a&eeasftDly. 

25he coMpreewH' was mn in tlte rotatiiJ^;: etall rcfjlon at tte speeds 
wfeere it existed. l*reviot» teste iiere laade «lth tlie tujsteady flew aa 
tii& liffilt* Par epoeuB above 75 percent of design apeod the unsteady 
flow m& tbe mxe^ liBJit but tar ©poedB belcsr thle it was %h& boarder 
of rotatins stall. ISbe torgtie efficiencies far the points in the 
POtfttiBg stall region are prmseutwi on Figure lS(b) end faired by e 
dastli^. line* 

Ttm coBcareeeor aeaisii !Kid a poesible fi^llc&tion to a boundery* 
layer suction contr«»l for a slotted throat traiisotiic wind tunnel, la 
this aK>lieatic»i it nouia be subject to varying ajaounts of saoistvar© 
casitesiA. To find the effect at laodLsttare tm the corapressor, water was 



- ?^2 - 

in,1eeted in the inlst 22 ioeh^ ^^tre^ia of the first rotor. Four 
oozzhsts vore used at this {joint. Plater voo sprayed in at rates \xp 
to I? percent oT tbe maes fl^sv vith xx> chazi@e noted in t]bc torqoe 
efficiency. *33^ {»lld point cbi Figure lB(b) lodlcatefii tb® poLot pf 
vatfi^ ln,)eetlCQ. T&mgerutarG r«M3dln@8 wsre not ti&en since there 
«8A some questloo es to ivhother all the v&%9t ttuat vas Injected had 
evaporated at tiiie exit of tJie coa^^ressor. 

Coofli^jratlon E tmo also tested vlth a Freon-12 aedlian. 3htt 
ovierall perfonaoacc (Pis» 19) wsw tJie seme as other Preon-12 testa 
(Flse. 1^ axvi 17)« tte laatss riov vas Increased Ijy ^ p&rceat cuad the 
flat operatlns range vaa aoaller timi for air teots. The pesJs. value 
of the eta^snatlon-ixresatire ratio and. of tbc tesaspsrattsra ofTlolency 
roaalned ^e eaoo as for eonfl^uratloa C tested vlth elr (Fl^. Ik) . 
f!he static i:iresBure rise had tbe aaae eharacteristloe as otber 
conflgnratloas (C and D) tested with Fr®cn-12. 

After tbs voter Injeetloa testa ^rere caBB3;>lttted, tbe eocagoreeecr 
oasli^Sflt ahosiTed distinct lines of boundary flov (Figs. lD(a) and 10(b}) 

the foUovins is a evnaary Oif tiie resultc: 

1. A flat operatjbos eiuuracterlstlc at eourtaat speed (sta^soatlon 
prossiire ratio IndepeiKUmt of tmss flov ov«r ttis ran^ of tbe sraoblne) 
veus oiitaiaed tQr naiting the rotational speed equal to tisa clian^ in 
tananstlal velocity tlxrough the rotor at tlie taeitti roAXv^t vlth tbe 
HMt of veiisbt flow balng the oupersoRlc (dtoklog In the sixth statCK*. 



. 1^3 - 



2. M Avera^s ste,Gi3»tricai pressupe ratio of 1.21? per stas© 'i®** 
ca>t&jUi«d at a tip speed oat' 550 ft/sec and sc ostitvl wloeity of 

6^ ft/»ec. 

3. Peak efflcieac^ wiie oflssariy conststit (6o to 8£ percant) at fJJl 
i^paei^ £tam y^ to lOO pesmmit of design ©peed ifor coaif isia^ation C iidtor© 
a«sian cor»litio!3» vm% loat. 

4. The effect of riinning this cm^'mx^s^ in Fr^csi wao to Incsroase 
t£ift aase fXov t^r ^ j^rcent tn-it to decreuea the 7«nge of flat opmration 
at artd a^ve diesis^. 

^. Hoidtusre cositent i4> to \J^ pe£*cent of tliie saass flow 4t oesiga 
gpoeid hstd no elTeot oa tiie torg?je efficiency or laass flc^. 

*Sm co»ciuftioQ0 driim:} l>cm ttiee« zvsuitu viXI 1p« £vcci«»it«d la 
tlie neaEt section. 



-u^ 



. M» . 



A sixi^rtage axial-f lew ccxqporatlsQr with a 550 foot per secood t3j> 
Bpefflsd !«nd a flat opexating cbsracteiristic (ca»taafe etagaafciow-pwwmjr® 
r^tio at coE»Bta»t speed owr tise o^esmtlng raago of tJj© ooBgiretteor) va» 
iSosignsa and tested. 'iSje (iasitSQ opeejflc wet£i&t flow wi» 21.5 pouolB 
per secorad p»r sQjaare toa^ of fx-oatal area wJ-^ ®n atSKffii^ierlc dl»ciiar@e 
at aa overall etafjpiatljmHfiressiire ratio od? 3.25 Qsad an iialet teib-tip 
radiw ratio of 0.7. SHie cosiBrenisor wa© d^aissaecl toy conveatioml . 
aetJaoOs. 2te» foUoKdag a»xily»iom were drasm faw© tte teat reswlt©. 

1. 3aii>ta;^e«t2^ tolai^ei& «sro «ii-ultaM£i for low speed wtlti«t«^ 
canpetteeoTB if the &t&tlc-pr«$ssu£« rl»e ie gre&t tiosou^ to pcsralt 
mtltistaging. 

2. A fiat opersstias characteristic can te designed fear by using 
6j«BBtrlc6l vector dlagrajaj and a Mgk hub»tip radiiES sr^tio. 

3. Ifevtal liMte of atatle-5r«««am cosSttoimb ware found to be 
ai!K>lica3>l© fcr tiiie tj^ of deslga. 



• 45 • 

ISMS ^utbox* viaiim ip ex^wesa iilft apprelca.tiou to tl30 
Batbional MviscaJy Cowittee for Aerorautlcs for tiie xtoe of their 
e^iiixwssct aaa persoixetel in carri'lng out tM6 reeearch project. 

Ss also wishea to th&ok Mr. Willaaxi H. ^eitphal of the BACA for 
Ms ii^ea.'.; leading to tM ^Smim q£ this ooaprestecr mid his guicteace 
in tl»e testing aaa. x*e^uctioQ of data, of thin om^s/refmos^, and 
Msi&taat VroS>&»s€st ^meu B* Badiesji J^« tuA aiher mssSbors of the 
MrcnaautlcaJL. Bngis^eri^ig staff of Vic^inisi. Polytechnic Institute: for 
their assictance in tbe jai^paration of tM© thesis. 



^ 






1. A dlBeuselOG Xed ti^ Mcult^ E, S. , and PMnKBi^ H. s The Belatlve 

Hsrits of CentrifugaX and Axial Coc^treseors for Aircraft Gas 
'SvalaiDSiB, Tbta J<»xmsl of the Boyal Jeroiautlcal Socio-^^ 
March 1951* p. 129- 

2. Enrin* Joim R«|» «ad Sohulsttti Wallace H. i Ihveetigation OEf an Xa^ulde 

Axial-Flotr CooQireMor. lACA BM L9J05a> 1950. 

5« SctattlaOj Wallaoe U., Ervl&j, Joian B.^ and Veotpbal* VlUard R. : 

Z»v«8tlsatleB of ao Ic^iilae Axial-Flcw Con^prasacn* Rotor Over a 
ttea^ of lOMe AagleB. MCA RM 1&XF21&, 1950. 

1», Savage, Melvync Analjraia of Mrodytmslc Blacle-Ioading Limit 
Parametcra for KACA 65»(Ci^3x^)10 (toR?pr«e»or-Bl«die Seetloitia 

at lotr Spaada. HACA RM l.;^lX}2a« 1955* 

5. Felix, A. IUchar<i: Sunaas^ of 65-3erle8 Cois^reBeor-Blade Lov-Speed 

Cascade Data by Use of the Carpet*?lottlOiS &ehsl(|tie. KftCA fS 5915* 
1957* (Su^raedes RACA m Lj^imBa.) 

6. 0oMber3> ^%ieordaz*e J., Boxer ^ Emanuel^ and, EermTt^ Poter T. : 

Experimental Isvestlgation of an Axlal-Plov Superscmle Coa^>reaaor 
Benriag Rounded Xc«dlng-Edg)e HLades Vlth an S-Peroant Mean 
fhloImeaa-Chord Ratio. RACA m JJ^ySlS, 195?. 

7. Bt^r^ Paul W., and Santrovitz, Arthur; A Device for tfeaourlng 

Scsile Velocity sod Coaixressaii' ifach "Smsfbor, MCA TS l6&i, X9kB, 

6. fioxer> Saacrael, and Ervln* JcAm R. : Inveatigatlon of a Shrouded 
and an Unshrouded Axl&l*Flov SvQperacnlc Coapraaoor. KACA 
RK I5«»05, 1950. 



-47- 

9bB author vao ham In Concord^ Sev Baopthlre^ on Septoniber 2, 1930. 
Be gnbduated frora the Coocoard Hl^ School in Ctxoeord, Koir Hwnp n htr e In 
191^. Upon graduation from hl^ school he entered the University of 
Bev Bas^hire in Durba% Kev BeuE^tsbire and received tbe degree of 
Bachelor o^ Science in NacdMtnical Sn^neerlns in 19:^. Since that tiiae 
he has been et^Xogred as an Aeronaxxtical Research Engineer liy the 
Xational Mvl6<»y Coraaitte© for Aorcoautica at Lanaley Field, Virginia. 



- kB 



AjfpeaAlx A. Derlvetlon of an Equatiaa Tor the Bate of Ctaaa&s 
of Work Input With a Chon^ in Axial Velocity 

A ty^plcal velocity diagram is sbotm in Bketoh 1. 




Sketch 1 
It io eeeuaied thatt 

1. Entering end leaving axial velocities are oi^uaL. 

2. Streamlines remain at the same radii. 

3> Leaying flov direction relative to the rotor retaains constant 
as the entering flow diroction variee. 

fihe work done per xmXt siass flow is WiVo^ vkLle the chen^ in 
ttttgential velocity ia 



^^9 " ^91H ' ^92R 



(Al) 



DBt 



£s7q » U - Vj. tan 0^^ - V^ tan $28 



(A2) 



-v/^ 



.1^9- 



Qlffer«jntlatln^ the chsng^ in taaagenUal veloclV vlth respect to the 
axial velocity gives 

4(AV9) 



d?. 



» -(ton 0x ♦ ^i«n P2R) (A5) 



Ifcltiplyins iMJth 0ldeQ of enuatlon (Aj) by Vj/aXTg gLvQS 
<a(AV9) 



g^e _ -(V^. ten pj^ + V3 tan Pgj,) 

•MBMI 



dV^ AVg 



Simplifying eti^atlaD (/U^) tii^ vm of eqviatioQ (A2) giv«a 









(M) 



(A5) 



^9 tl 

.,.,. M -,.. ,.., .■ ■ m X • — ~ (Afi) 

fi AVg ^ ' 



Equation (Afi) Is an expre&sloo for the rat© of (dsunge of woi* 
Input with a ehaage in axial velocity at a coMttaot rotatlooal speed. 

Appendix B. Sffoct cdT ftestlng With Prooo-12 
©» InereasG 1» denslV will ollow the eoR^reaaor to operate with 
an affective area chaaap without a ctmam In e«OBetry. To illustrate 
thla the pereenta^se ixMsraase in danait^r is cou^juted. 



- 50 - 
The vork Input can be written as 

Work - iaCp(T2 - Tj.) « niKsyg (Bl) 

Equation (BL) can !» rewritten in the farm of tas^perature ratio 

Kotf aasuoing the coo^ressor operates with a polytropic procaas, 
then the folXoving expression 



(»-l) 



(n»l) 



(B3) 



can be uaed to relate the stagnation values of pressuroi dexisit;^', ond 
temperature. 

The relation for staeoation-pressure ratio in tenas of velocity 
and inlet temperature can bo found by coc^ining equati(»s (B?) and (B2) . 
Ihie viU result in 

^a.te.i)^ m 

^1 V^p'i J 

FjroB equation (BJ*), the etaanation-presaure ratio ie ratio of air to 
F!reon-12 



V 



- 51 - 









+ 1 



n 



'Preon-12 



^liCiV, 






(B5) 



Eqimtlon (B5) gives the relation bstneen the stagnatlon-preaaure ratio 
and the stagnation-density ratio. TMa can be written In the air to 

Preon-12 ratio as 



^^/alr 



.1/e 



'air 



f^' 



a/n 



(B6) 



'FreoD-12 



■^1. 



FreoR-12 



The ratio of the tip speeds for the sans relative Inlet Mach txmbcr 
In air and Freon-12, oBBumlng ao inlet whirl, is, j-roa reference 8, 



0, 



air 



^Freqn-12 



J± 



^2 4- (y - l)%^yalr 



i 



* ''Pi?ecoi»12 



(BT?) 



where R in this equation is the ualvereol gos constant. 

For a rau3.ti8taee coaipressor with a sjnranietrical vector dla®pam, where 
all ataaes turn the flw/ axial, and the work input is constant per staae 
r«8«rdlesa of the output of the previous staae, the Ql>ove etjuaUone can 



- 52 - 

be used. ITbe overedl stajsoation-pressure ratio can be coeaputed vlthout 
a staii3e*by«staeo aaal^ele since U ■< tST^, AssuDaixks a polytropic 
efficiency of 85.8 percent and an inlet absolute Maeh nusfeer of 0.6, 
e(]uatloci (B^) ceja be evriXuated for the deslga ecaodltions o£ the subject 
eoo^essor. The resulting ratio ia 







ri/Fteon-ia 





1.025 (B6) 



Shis indicates ttej presssva-e ratio should be 2.5 percent less in 
Freon-12 for design efficiency. Foi- an air desian pressure ratio of 
5.25, eqLuation (B6) roBulte in 



. '^yFreon-12 \ ^ V preon-12 






1.2U3 (&3) 



dbsnslty is tben apjjroxlmitely 21; percent greater for Preon-12 
than for air at the coKFreasor ©xlt. This vould effectively increase 
the effect!''/© ennulus area by 2h percent without a osoBietrical change. 



^^ 



- 55 - 



Hoto. / /f^^^^^^ 




K-^e,i 




'e,2,R 



Stator 



Composite diagram of the above 



^2,R^ 




V^2 


(-•— Ui A 


U2— »- 







V 





N\ H 




^f^-®s 




y^:''^\ ^ 


z 


\ V3 \^ 


1 


' 1 X 



'e,2 



Figure 1.- General vector diagram. 



^ . 



Constant speed operating lines 



H 

PL. 

0-. 



o 

-p 

u 

w 
u 

to 

05 

u 

c 
o 

•H 

-p 

tut 
nJ 
-P 
CO 



1- • 



AVg<U 



AVq-U 



AVq>U 



Negative slope 



Zero slope 




Positive slope 



Increase 



Weight flow, lbs/sec 



Figtire 2.- Typical constant speed overall performance for three types 

of axial-flow compressors. 



- 55 - 



^2,1 \ 



Rotor 



^2,R ^Z,2 




Stator 



^Z,3 ^3 



Composite diagram of the above 



Pl,R 


>< 




\ 

vz 

r 




-P2 

\ 


4 -^ 










u 






u 





Figure 3.- Typical symmetrical vector diagram. 



56 




U = 550 ft/sec 

Tip section, radius = 0.667 ft 



V2 - 65o f t/seo 
M3 = 0.579 



^1,R • 
6r = 


36° 30' / 
360 30. /V^ 


V 


P2 " 36° 30' 
■^ 63 - 36° 30' 






^ 








.^ 


\ '^ 

V 


i 






^"~\\ '^,R-''-S7' 




II = h8l ft/sec 


^^- ^2 = 65o ft/sec 




Pitch section. 


radius =• 


M3 " 0.579 
0.582 ft ^ 


^1,R = 


32° 18' V / 


\>: 


p2 = 1x0° 59' 

~^es = Uo° 59' 


% = 


Ii5° 16- ^/ 


\^\ 






/ 
o'/ 

'' / 




\ 
\ 






r Y^ 


\ 




U » 1(11 ft/sec 


^""^"---^ / V, = 650 f t/s 



Hub section, radius = o.ii98 ft 



M3 = 0.579 



Figure \. 



Design vector diagram for first stage of six-stage 
compressor at several radii. 



- 57 



o 




I 



tn 

CO 

03 

U 
O 
-P 
o 

K 



a 
o 



+3 



•H 

C 

o 

o 



0) 
CO 

OS 

u 
o 
to 
m 
<u 
U 

t 



CO 
I 

X 

•H 



^^\ 



f-^ 



58 - 







I 

•P 
CQ 



rQ -H 



I 

O 

a 
o 



ir\ 



59 - 




Clamp to hold last mounting block 

Mounting block 




Figure 6.- Detail of "blade mounting and notches in blade. 



- 60 - 



vO -1 


• 




c 


-=T - 


•r-l 




•1 


C^J - 


rH 




to 


~ 


CJ 


o J 


« 




CQ 

CO 

t 

o 
o 

•H 

> 



a 
a 
o 

•H 

-p 
u 

0) 
CQ 

I 

!>• 
0) 



•H 



- 61 . 



Q. -o 
X t; 

I o 
O 
O 

o 




x: 


Ti 


u> 




g 


fl5 


1 


-p 


S 


CQ 




-p 




CO 


^ 


0) 




4-' 




u 


^ 


o 




CQ 




m 


iii 


0) 


0) 


^ 










y 




to 


o 


^ 


o 


U] 






ttH 


o 


8 


> 


OJ 


0) 
•H 


^ 


> 


1- 






c: 




crt 




H 




P4 




CO 




OJ 




^H 




?n 




•H 




P^ 



- 62 - 




Figure 9-- Instr-uments. 



L-57-2250.1 



- 6^ - 




o 

ON 

I 



o 
-P 
o 
K 



o 

•H 
•P 



SO 

•H 

o 
o 



! 

B 

•H 

•H 
H 
O 

CQ 

^1 
CD 
-P 

^ 

M 
CQ 

cd 
o 

CQ 
CQ 
CU 

o 
o 

(D 
bO 
ccj 
-P 

CQ 
I 

X 

•H 



F^H 



6k - 




-=1- 

O 

0\ 



H 

'i 
(U 
(0 

m 

u 
o 

-p 



;^ 

H 
O 
G 
O 

O 

I 

d 



•H 



3.2 



- 65- 



^ 



cd 
U 

0) 

u 

3 

m 

0) 
!-i 

ft 
o 

■H 



-p 



2.8 



2.1^ 



A 



o 



n 



A 



O 



TT 



O 



-Q- 



-7^ 



-^ 



XL 



O 



-.^ 



O 



a 



o 



A ^^ A- 



o 



n 



o 



<> 



[] 



o 



n 



o 



A 



o o 



TT 



TT 






o 



-a-^^ 



n 



-o-^^ 



o 



2.0 






U 
3 

OJ 



cd 
o 

•H 
03 

c 

OJ 
S 
•H 

o 
s 



.18 



.1^6 



.bli 



.lt2 



Percent Design 
Mass Flow 

O 96.3 

D 95.6 

O 9b .8 

A 81|.9 



.56 



O 



<> 



.58 



A 



O 



O 



A 



-Inner casing 



C] 



<> 



I, 



-^- 



D 



o 



A 



CI 



X> 



/I. 



.Outer casing 



^ 



o60 



.62 .6k 

Radius, ft 



.66 



,68 



Figure 11.- Stagnation pressure ajid temperatiire distribution against 

radius for design speed. 



- 66 - 




'i./\ '(s3bj3ab xE3T-i30inu) OTq.Ba 8jnss3jd-uoiq.Bu3ieq.s 



> 




o 


B 


r-\ 


^H 


tH 


•H 




01 


ta 




to 


a 


g 


•H 




< 


« 




hU 


c 


•H 


C) 


CO 


•H 


0) 


-P 


TIJ 


01 


Ch 


^ 


O 


bn 




■rH 


-P 


tH 


fl 


G 


(i) 


C) 


o 


a 


^^ 




OJ 


U 


Ph 


o 




to 


^ 


CO 


-P 


0) 


•H 


U 


> 


n 


^-^ 


(1) 


o 


hO 




cd 


> 


^ 


o 


OJ 


H 


> 


Ch 


cd 


1 




H 


rH 


01 


01 


•H 


O 


X 


•H 


01 


1m 




0) 


(1) 


s 


bn 


p 


01 


c 


+3 


■■ — 


CO 


o 


X 


•H 


•H 


-P 


to 


01 




^ 


oj 


OJ 


qn 


^ 


o 


w 


0) 


CQ 


o 


(IJ 


f:^ 


^ 


q3 


^ 


g 


C 


O 


o 


i« 


•H 


^K 


+3 


0) 


03 


ft 


C 




h!) 


H 


01 


H 


-P 


01 


M 


^^ 




(U 


In 


> 


O 


O 


a 


1 


o 


• 


•H 


r\\ 


-P 


H 


01 




•H 


0) 


^ 


^ 


> 


bO 




•H 


-— ^ 


P^ 



- 67 - 




•a 



CQ 

m 



a 
w 

•H 
01 

o 

o 

;^ 

0) 

ft 

■P 



0) 
bO 
cd 
!h 

> 
o 

•H 

u 



o 
c 

(U 

o 

•H 
tH 
«H 
0) 

0) 



0) 

■p 

q-t 
o 

a 
o 

•H 

-p 

■H 



•H 
-P 

O 
O 



OJ 



•H 



iU 



'(83BJ8AB XBsTJsmnu) iCousTofjja ajn^Baadmaj, 



- 68 - 



0) 
Xi 



C 
•H 



a 



•H 

CD 
S-. 

d 

CO 

in 

0) 

Ih 

O. 

I 

o 

VI 

Q. 



J.u 
























/ 




3.2 


















































L 


i 


P 8 




















y 


/ 


< 


> 










( 

r 


Poi 
3 I 

: II 
> III 

\ IV 
- des 


Its 








/ 


< 


> 




2.1 








< 










z 
< 


> 


















/< 


> 




I 


3 




? 














/ 






c 


) 


C 


] 














/ 


< 


> 


i 










1.6 










/} 




> \ 


^ 
















/ 




' \ 

' 


} 


3 














1 2 




-^i 




^ ' 


3 




















/^ 




^ 


















C 


) 


R 








100 


perce 


at des 


i-gn 


sp 


2ed 













Rl SI R2 S2 R3 S3 Rii SIj b5 s5 R6 s6 

Blade row 

(c) Variation of tip static-presstire rise with blade row. 

Figure 12.- Continued. 



- 69 - 



4 
2.4 



I.S 



3,4 



2.2 





























































, /, (1 () fft h i) ri 




























^' H 




40- percent design speed 


























,, 
















/ 


1 ^ 


? 


n' ri ^ 


, 




< 


1 < 


1 < 


> < 


> i 


) { 


) t 


^ 




























































































c 


^ 




6D- percent design speed 


















































4 






















/^ 


i 


/ 


' \ 


\ ' 


> 


















\ 


1 


t 


: 




1 














1 


' V 


\ 




















t; 


) ^ 


\ " 
















{ 


> « 


> 


















c 


) 
































85- percent design speed 


























■■ 
























/ 


\ 
























^ 


























































c 


1 
















































\ 


























- 
























i 


> c 




i 




















< 

r 


( 

1 


J 






















c 


















I 


) 




( 


^ ^ 






IC 


)5- 


)erc 


;nt 


Jesi 


3n s 


pee 


i 







1-0 



,6 
2,2 



1,8 



1,0 



,S 
2,8 



2.4 



2,0 



1,2 





















^: ' 


, " 




^^,J i"J '' ^f " 


<> ■■' <> 
(i tl 


























I 


1 




























> 





50- percent design speed 













































































-' 

'^^_^. 
















... ti 


1i J 












^» f 


























































1 


























" 





75- percent design speed 







1 

Point 
















I. 








O I 

II It 




































J 
















m 










> " 


'• 


' 




















( 


) 


^ 


■ 


















J 


























r 


; ' 


J 










[] 








i 




J 




















< 


) ] 


) 














































(; 






































95-percent 
I 1 


desi 


gn s 


peed 









RI R2 R3 R4 R5 RS 

SI S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 

Blade row 



RI R2 R3 R4 R5 RS 

SI S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 



(c) Concluded. 
Figure 12.- Concluded. 



- TO - 





































-t^S-r 


'-o^ 


o__- 


i^ocS 


H T-Xin^ ^A 


















u CI i 




-^ 




w- 


J -1'-' 


-i^-p 


-i7 




















r-i 




\ 




•-J 


t 






























o 

o 


^ a 


'S 






^1 ^ 


























KX 


\ 


f 


























H 


\ 


\T 




7 










c 




















\ H 




c> 






















s 






CO ^ 


\ 


t> 








f 






















\ 




% 




























l\ 




J 






























\^ 
































o 

M3 


V 




V 












3XAV% C 


DUN O 


























O m CO ^0 t^co CO CT^ O O iH 




















































^ l--Zi\|l.Y_ 


JUO 


















*^ 
































































OJ 
































































o 

M 








































-? 






o 




^o 




CJ 




CO 








O 



m 






- 71 - 




CO Ch 



C MT3 






-OfH 






<]I>zl\ii7aao 



H 



to 

CQ 



CQ 

(U 
CJ 

ft 



Id 

•H 
+^ 

O 
U 

I 




U 



•H 



^U '(93Ba3AB TBoxjaumu) ^ouafaxjja ajR^Bjaduiai 



- 72 - 






•rl 

a) 



t 



CO 

n 

grg 

?1. 



3.6 



3.2 



2.L 



2.0 



1.6 



1.2 

























/ 
























/ 


/ 


























< 


^ 




















/ 


/ ^ 


k 










Points 

n T 








/] 


^ 












D II 

O III 

A TV 






/ i 


^ 


t 


3 












— des: 


-gn 






V 


c 


] 


C 


3 














/ (r 


^ 
^ 


? C 


3 


















/ / 


/ \ 


1 


5 






i 


) 










/^ 




3 


















/ 




' i 


} 






















\ 




















A 


r ^ 


\ 

















































Rl SI R2 S2 R3 S3 Rli Sh R5 s5 R6 s6 



Blade row 



(c) Variation of tip static-pressirre rise with blade row at 100-percent 

design speed. 



Figure I5.- Concluded. 



- 75 - 




'<!/ J '(sS'BJaAE xEo-taamrm) 0-fq.ej 3anssaad-uoT^Bu3E:|.s 



j^ 




o 


• 


H 


U 


=H 


■H 




Crt 


Ul 




U 


a 


01 


-H 


B 






D 


C 




M 


d 


•H 


o 


m 


■H 


(U 


-p 


'rt 


crt 


'H 




o 


tiD 




•H 


-p 


Ch 


G 


fl 


0) 


C) 


o 


O 


!h 




0) 


^H 


Ph 


o 




w 


rC! 


to 


-P 


0) 


•H 


;h 


> 


R* 




H 


,- ^ 


o 


0) 


o 


W) 




si 


> 


^ 


o 


tu 


r-\ 


> 


ch 


crt 






rH 


H 


01 


crt 


•H 


o 


>< 


•H 


Crt 


;h 




(D 


0) 


ri 


Wl 


p 


ort 


a 


-p 


■■ — ■ 


to 


o 


X 


•H 


•H 


-P 


CO 


Crt 




!h 


crt 


OJ 


=H 


^ 


o 


w 


(U 


CO 


CJ 


0) 


G 


u 


crt 


ft 


S 


1 


^ 


n 


C) 


u 


Ch 


■H 


^ 


-P 


a) 


Crt 


P< 


C 




bl) 


H 


Crt 


H 


-P 


crt 


w 


Jh 




OJ 


ch 


> 


O 


O 


G 


1 


c:> 


• 


•H 


-4- 


-p 


H 


crt 




•H 


G) 


S 


3 


> 


bO 




•H 


- — - 


^ 



- 71^ - 




_->0 OO-unOtA-LfNO- 
P.G3 CQOOCVOI^COO 



C MX) 

oj-H (uOO\j-\0"uM-r\<: 

u CO Q)-zjvor-cocoo\< 



□ <]|>^'^[7^ 



0, 



§ 



CO 



(U 

O 

-P 

o 

<u 

-P 
•H 



(U 
bO 
oi 

0) 

03 



03 
o 

•H 
0) 



>5 

o 

(U 
•H 

O 
•H 

tH 

<D 



-P 

O 

fl 
O 

•H 



0) 

•H 
-P 

a 
o 
u 






tiD 
•H 
[in 



'■'U '(ggBasAB reoTjsamu) jCou3totjj9 3jn;Bj:8diii3j, 



- 75 - 



O 

u 



C 

•H 

x: 

4) 



0) 

1^ 



u 
a 
I 
o 

•H 

-p 

ns 
ra 
a, 




(c) Variation of tip static-pressijre rise with blade row at 100-percent 

design speed. 



FigTjre Ik.- Concluded. 



- 76 - 



































K 


■ >—> 
H 1— 1 






J-H 


M 


















C £-0 ^ > 
O W 05 S 


























^ 


-^^ 


^ !^ 


l-H "'^ J} 


a. 


r-l 
r— 1 






Lrt3r 


47-171; 






















h 


O 

r-t 


\ 


f 


P,^ 


t^" 
























tk 






























H 


1— 1 VN 


^-1 M 
























o 

OS 


\s 


^ 


f 






























[ 




























1-f — 


^ 




























CC 


\ 
































\ 


l-H 


M -^ 


























t^ 

t 


\ H 
\ '^ 


f 




























9 


























tt) 

■P 

m 

c 


€ 


\ 


1 ""* 




























C 

u 


*"* 












o o o 


OlA O 


LA om 
OJ o ^- 


Ola 






















*> c 


p c\j f-i -^ -3- _=n>\ umj-\ 

a 

(u o o Otj-\ ou-s Om 

(p ■LP.MD CO CO 0\ 0\ O O 

Q. i-H (-1 
cn 


O mD 






















(D -H 
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'd/ 'd '(aasjsA^ iBoxasomu) ofq.-Ej 3j:nss3jd-uo-f:tEu3Bq.s 



- 77- 































































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+^ CM f^-d-jn-a-irvxAirv-. 

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gJlA'OcOCOOsOsO o 

8- 








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•"U *(93Ba3AB x^^T-J^'"^^) jCousTCTjja 3jii';BJ9dni8j, 



- 78- 



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to 

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HI SI R2 S2 R3 S3 Rli SU r5 s5 

Blade row 



R6 



S6 



(c) Variation of tip static-press\jre rise with blade row. 
Figure I5.- Continued. 



- 79 - 































1.6 
1.2 
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50- percent design speed 



60- percent design speed 



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2.8 

























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Rl R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 

SI S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 



(c) Concluded. 
Figure 15-- Concluded. 



- 80 - 



































































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■j/^d '(33EJ8AB xBoTjamnu) ot^bj ajnsssjd-uo-ptTOgB^s 



- 81 - 




cxiD cooojot^CMOr^- 
to ^ 



OJ-H (DO-LTvOIA'LAOi^ 
CJ to tt)vOf-COCOO\00 



<3 !>Zl\l[7^a 



a:! 

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VD 
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bO 



■^U '(agBjSAE x'BOTjsranu) jCoustotjjs sjn^Hjadmso. 



- 82 - 



n 



a 



c 
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RL 



R2 S2 R3 S3 Rli Six 

Blade row 



R5 s5 



R6 



S6 



(c) Variation of tip static -pressure rise with blade row at 100-percent 

design speed. 



Figiire l6.- Concluded. 



83 















































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I7_ 


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ni 


o ov 


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0) CM 
a) 



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fin 



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a 



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■<l/ a '(agsjaAB t^oTjaomu) ot^.ej ajisssjd-uoT^BuS'Kjs 



- 81^ 























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■Hi '(sSBjaAE xBof-Jsuinu) jCauaioTjja ajr^Bjadmsa, 



85- 



0) 
X! 
CO 



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■H 






0) 

a, 
I 

o 

-p 

5 



3.6 



3.2 



2.8 



2.h 



2.0 



1.6 



1.2 



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1 








< 


^ 






















/ 


























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> 










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^ 


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O III 








^ 


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i 


^ 




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^ 


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Rl SI R2 s2 R3 S3 rI; Sli R5 S5 RS s6 



Blade row 



(c) Variation of tip static-pressure rise with blade rov at 100-percent 

design speed. 



Figure IJ.- Concluded. 



- 86 - 




% 



'ipi '(aSsJSAB xEoTJsnmu) oTiEj ajnsssad-uo-c-^BuS-B'is 



- 87 




H 

tH 
CQ 

i 

•H 
CO 
0) 

t:! 

ch 
O 

-p 
C 
OJ 

o 
u 

0) 

^ 

•H 

> 

O 

c 

cu 

•H 

o 

■H 
l+H 
CH 

0) 

(U 

& 
^^ 
O 
■P 

ch 
O 

O 
•H 
+^ 

cS 
•H 



^ 



•H 
4-> 

G 

O 
U 



CO 
(D 



^ 'XouBTOTJJa sribaoj, 



- 88 - 



3.6 



n 



"C 

a 

c a. 
•1- 

j; 
a 



dfl 



S3 



O 

•H 
■P 
CI) 

-p 

(0 



3.2 



2.8 



2.h 



2.0 



1.6 



1.2 























- 




























L 
< 


> 






















z 
< 


> 










1 
Points 
O I 
























U II 

O III 
A IV 








/ 


< 




j C 


) 


















<i 


> 
























> F 


^ 
5 


i 


















^ 


^ 8 


^ 




















^ 


c 


} 






■ 
















} 


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\ 

5 




















1 


} ^ 


& 

















































Rl SI ,R2 S2 R3 S3 Rli SL B$ S5 R6 S6 



Blade row 

(c) Variation of tip static-press-ure rise with blade row at 100-percent 

design speed. 



Figure 18.- Concluded. 



- 89- 




CD OJ 



-p 

CO 

I 



•H f^ 

w 



o 

(D 
O 
C 

O 

l+H 

Ih 
0) 
ft 



aJ 
U 

> 
O 



d/y '(s^BjaAB x^3TJ3*'^"J 0T';Ba ejnssajd-uo'c^BuSE^s 



- 90 - 




> 




C) 




H 




tH 




m 




m 




cd 




s 




fl 




bO 




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ca 




0) 




Ti 




<M 




o 




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fl 




(1) 




o 




^ 




a; 




Pi 




^ 




-p 




•H 




IS 




0) 




bf) 


• 


cri 


Ti 


^ 


(1) 


0) 


::! 


l> 


fi 


crt 


•H 




-p 


r-\ 


C 


OJ 


C5 


a 


rs 


•H 




fH 


1 


0) 


• 



ON 



■^U '(33EJ3AE x'soT-ts'mu) jtoua-fOTjja ajuiEjadmm 



- 91 






r-l 
J3 



a. 









n 
a 
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T 



5 



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q.u 




























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<> 


3.2 






















^^ 






























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i 
Points 

O I 

n TT 










^ 


^ 














O III 

A IV 








^ 


^ 








' li 






















r; 


C 


J - 


















< 


^ 




e 


? 




"? n 














i 


) 




[ 


^ 


















< 




{ 
^ 


^ ^ 


3 








1 ,^ 










< 


' t 




J 




















i 


^ ' 


} 












( 


) 


1 9 






^ 
t 


3 


] 




















1 


1 


? 






















,ft 




























Rl 


SI 


R2 


52 


R3 


S3 


Rli 


Sli 


R5 


s5 


r6 


S6 





Blade roif 



(c) Variation of tip static -pressure rise with blade row at 100-percent 

design speed. 



Fig-ure IS.- Concluded.